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Full text of "International Rectifier-IR2110 High Voltage MOS Gate Driver OCR"

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i 





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Designer's Manual 






International 
SI Rectifier 



International 
S Rectifier 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



Solid State Relay 
Applications and Product Data 



Power IC Technology 
for 

Advanced Control Systems 



PUBLISHED BY 

INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER, 233 KANSAS ST., EL SEGUNDO, CALIFORNIA 90245 



MPIC-5 

FIFTH EDITION 
FIRST PRINTING 



1993 International Rectifier 



Printed in U.S.A. 4/93-M 5 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



The ChipSwitch® 
Microelectronic Power IC Relay 

Introduction 

This designer's manual features the ChipSwitch, a miniature solid state relay (SSR) which uses unique 
International Rectifier power ICs as the control device to switch AC power from 50 to 400 Hz. Two power 
ICs are connected in inverse parallel (analogous to anti-parallel SCRs). Each IC controls one polarity 
of the AC power line and also provides all of the supplementary functions performed by elaborate discrete 
component SSR circuits. Input isolation is provided by an electrically isolated light emitting diode (LED) 
whose infra-red radiation directly actuates the output power ICs. 

The ChipSwitch can be applied wherever it is necessary to control AC power loads from logic level, 
isolated DC signals. It is an ideal interface allowing microprocessor outputs to control AC solenoids, 
electrical valves, lamps, heaters, small motors, power contactors and annunciators. 

Traditional solid state advantages of long switching life, low input power, fast response, no bounce, 
EMI-free operation, miniaturization, and reliability are all major features of ChipSwitch relays. 

Each ChipSwitch features controlled zero voltage turn-on. The excellent dv/dt ratings eliminate the need 
for bulky, leaky, failure-prone RC snubber networks, even on low power factor inductive loads. Safety 
standard qualification from UL, CSA, and VDE have been achieved or are pending. Great overall system 
economy can result from International Rectifier's combination of power IC technology, miniature packag- 
ing, assured safety standard approvals, and reliable, wear out free operation. 

Three ChipSwitch package styles are available from International Rectifier. See page B-2 for the pro- 
duct line summary. AC line voltages from 20 to 280 VAC and current levels to 3.0 amperes can be 
controlled. In summary, designer's will find the ChipSwitch microelectronic power IC relay an ideal solid 
state control device for AC loads from milliamperes up to the range of several hundred watts. 



(ChipSwitch is a registered trademark of International Rectifier) 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



The BOSFET® PVR 
Microelectronic Power IC Relay 



Introduction 

The photovoltaic relay (PVR) devices featured in this designer's manual use unique International Rec- 
tifier power ICs, termed BOSFETs, as the solid state relay (SSR) output for switching a great variety 
of analog and digital signals. 

The BOSFET power IC contains two power MOSFETs in inverse series connection for distortion-free 
control of bidirectional (AC) and DC signals. A fast turn-off circuit plus transient suppression circuitry 
are each integrated into the BOSFET. These PVRs also contain a unique, multicell photovoltaic generator 
developed by International Rectifier which controls the BOSFET. Input isolation is provided by an elec- 
trically isolated light emitting diode (LED) whose infra-red radiation energizes the photovoltaic generator. 

The power MOSFET type of output allows International Rectifier PVRs to control analog signals from 
millivolts to hundreds of volts, from nanoamps to hundreds of milliamps, and from DC to hundreds of 
kilohertz. These PVRs are widely applied in instruments, multiplexers, data acquisition, automatic test 
equipment, telecommunications, and a wide variety of general purpose AC and DC signal switching 
functions. 

The solid state characteristics of PVRs allow them to greatly exceed the performance of the best reed 
and general purpose signal level electromechanical relays (EMRs). PVRs have a demonstrated swit- 
ching life of more than 10 10 operations, and actuation times of less than 100 microseconds. The 
generation of false thermal voltages by PVRs is much less than that of the best "low thermal" reed 
relays. Less than 5 milliwatts of control power is normally required and PVRs commonly occupy only 
a fraction of the volume of comparable EMRs. 

Furthermore, International Rectifier PVRs do not require a coil suppression diode. They switch clean 
without bounce, are not sensitive to position or magnetic fields and, like most solid state devices, are 
highly resistant to shock and vibration. 

International Rectifier's PVR product line summary is given on page B-3. All PVRs are available in DIP 
packages with voltage ratings up to 300 volts and current ratings as high as 1 .0 ampere. 




(BOSFET is a registered trademark of International Rectifier) 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



Data Sheets 



The solid state switching devices listed in this Designer's 
Manual represent International Rectifier's microelectronic 
power IC relay line as of March 1993. This manual 
includes information on several new photovoltaic relay 
(PVR) devices as well as International Rectifier's current 
family of ChipSwitch solid state relays. Designers are 
invited to contact IR direct for any additional technical 
data or applications assistance. 



The information presented in this Designer's Manual is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, International Rectifier can assume 
no responsibility for its use nor any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is 
granted by implication or other use under any patent or patent rights of International Rectifier. No patent liability shall be incurred for 
use of the circuits or devices described herein. 

International Rectifier does not recommend the use of its devices in life support applications wherein such use may directly threaten 
life or injury due to device failure or malfunction. Users of International Rectifier devices in life support applications assume all risks of 
such use and indemnifies International Rectifier against all damages resulting from such use. 

Copyright 1993, International Rectifier Corporation, Semiconductor Division, El Segundo, CA. All rights reserved. 
Reproduction or use of editorial or pictorial content without express permission in writing is prohibited. 

In the interest of product improvement, International Rectifier 
reserves the right to change specifications without notice. 



iv 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



GENERAL INDEX 



Alpha-Numeric Product Index 

Index to standard part numbers listing to each 
family-type ChipSwitch and Photovoltaic 
power IC relay device 



■OTI 

Page A-1 



Selection Guide to Voltage/Current Ranges 

Quick-reference specifications guide to DIP 
and SIP packages by voltage/current, with 
wiring diagrams and data sheet pages. 
Safety Standards Qualifications 



Data Sheets — ChipSwitch Relays 

Complete technical specifications and perfor- 
mance characteristic curves for ChipSwitch 
relay devices. 



mom 

Page B-2 




Page C-1 




Data Sheets — Photovoltaic Relays 

Complete technical specifications and 
performance characteristic curves for 
Photovoltaic relay devices. 



;OTD©[M 

Page D-1 



Data Sheets — Photovoltaic Isolators 

Complete technical specifications and 
performance characteristic curves for 
Photovoltaic Isolator devices. 



Page E-1 



Application Notes 

Index to detailed microelectronic power IC 
relay applications for AC and DC solid state 
switching and control functions. 



•CTI 

Page F-1 




V 



Microelectronic Relay 
Designer's Manual 



■ 



International 
S Rectifier 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



ALPHA-NUMERIC INDEX 



PART NO. 



PAGE 




Index to standard part numbers listing for each 
different family-type ChipSwitch and Photovoltaic 
power IC relay device. 



CS5005 
CS5010 
CS6005 
CS6010 



ChipSwitch 
Relays 



HC-1 



Heat Clip 



PVA1052 
PVA1054 
PVA1352 
PVA1354 
PVA2352 
PVA3054 
PVA3055 
PVA3324 
PVA3354 
PVAZ172 



Photovoltaic 
Relays 



PVD1052 
PVD1054 
PVD1352 
PVD1354 
PVD2352 
PVD3354 
PVDZ172 



Photovoltaic 
Relays 



PVI1050 
PVI5050 
PVI5100 



Photovoltaic 
Isolators 



PVR1300 
PVR1301 
PVR2300 
PVR3300 
PVR3301 



Photovoltaic 
Relays 



C-1 
C-1 
C-1 
C-1 



DP1110 




C-5 


DP1210 




C-5 


DP1610 




C-5 


DP2110 
DP2210 
DP2610 


ChipSwitch 
Relays 


C-5 
C-5 
C-5 


DP6110 




C-5 


DP6210 




C-5 


DP6610 




C-5 



C-1 2 



D-1 
D-1 
D-5 
D-5 
D-1 3 
D-9 
D-9 
D-1 3 
D-1 3 
D-1 7 



D-21 
D-21 
D-25 
D-25 
D-29 
D-29 
D-33 



E-1 
E-1 
E-1 



D-37 
D-37 
D-41 
D-41 
D-41 



SP1110 




C-9 


SP1210 




C-9 


SP2110 
SP2210 
SP6110 


ChipSwitch 
Relays 


C-9 
C-9 
C-9 


SP6210 




C-9 



A-1 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



— 



International 
S Rectifier 



A-2 







Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 







SELECTION GUIDE 





Quick-reference specifications guide to DIP and 
SIP packages by voltage/current, with wiring 
diagrams and data sheet pages. 



B-1 



Microelectronic International 
Power IC Relays: ChipSwitch Series SRectifier 



Part 
Number 


Operating 
Voltage 
Range 
V(RMS) 


Maximum 
Load 
Current 
@ 40°C 
A(RMS) 


Train. 
Overvolt 
V(Pk) 


Turn-On 
Signal 

(DC) 


Dielectric 
Strength 
Input/Output 
V(RMS) 


Minimum 
Off State 
dv/dt @ 
Rated V 25°C 
V/u.1 


Maximum 
Off State 
Leakage 

HA 


Page 
Number 


Series 


SP1 110 




1.0 

Free Standing 


o.nn 

JUU 


5mA 








p q 


SP 


SP2110 


20-140 
20-280 


inn 
JUU 

450 


10mA 
5mA 








C-9 
C-9 


m 


SP2210 
SP6110 
CDC01 n 


20-280 

2U-28U 

on oon 
£U-20U 


3.0 

With Heal Sink 


450 
600 
600 


10mA 
5mA 
10mA 


4000 


600 


10 


P Q 
C-9 

C-9 


1 Form A 


DP1110 


20-140 




300 


5mA 








C-5 


DP 


DP1210 


20-140 




300 


10mA 








C-5 


DP1610 


20-140 




300 


3.5V 








C-5 




DP2110 


20-280 




450 


5 mA 








C-5 


■ 1 1 rr . 
gpj MB 


DP2210 


20-280 


1.0 


450 


10mA 


4000 


600 


10 


C-5 




DP2610 


20-280 




450 


3.5V 








C-5 




DP6110 


20-280 




600 


5mA 








C-5 


■ 


DP6210 


20-280 




600 


10mA 








C-5 




DP6610 


20-280 




600 


3.5V 








C-5 


1 Form A 


CS5005 


20-280 




500 


5mA 








C-1 


cs 


CS5010 


20-280 


0.3 


500 


10mA 








C-1 




CS6005 


20-280 


600 


5mA 


4000 


1200 


10 


C-1 




CS6010 


20-280 




600 


10mA 








C-1 


1 Form A 



Wiring Diagram 







INPUT OUTPUT 






♦ DC ±ACJ 


OUTPUT 


lie toj 

INPUT OUTPUT 

T' eT 






DC t AC 






1 

±AC 


♦ DC 
INPUT 


Series 


SP 


DP 


CS 



B-2 



Microelectronic International 
Power IC Relays: Photovoltaic Series S Rectifier 



Part 


Operating 
Voltage 


Mai. On- 
State Res. @ 
25 °C Ohms 


Max Load 
C u rrc nt 
a 40"C 
(DC) 
mA 


Nom. 

fnnfrnl 

Current 
(DC) 
mA 


Min. 
Off-State 


Dielectric 
Strength 


Max. 

ncd^u use 

Time 
On/OH 
Msec 


Maximum 
Thermal Oftept 
Voltage s 5 mA 
Control 

/•V 


Page 


Series 


Number 

(D 


Range 

V(Pk) 


AC/DC 


DC 


ties. 
Ohms 


Input/Output 
V(RMS) 


Number 


PVR1300 


±100 


5.0 


1.5 


700 




10 s 




300/50 




D-37 


ova 


PVR1301 


±100 


5.0 


1.5 


700 




10 10 




300/50 




D-37 




PVR2300 


±200 


24 


60 


260 


10 


10 8 


1500 


100/50 


2 


0-41 


m 


PVR3300 


+300 


24 


60 


260 




10 8 




100/50 




D-41 




PVR3301 


±300 


24 


6.0 


260 




10 10 




100/50 




D-41 


2 Form A 


PVA1052 


±100 


35 




70 


5.0 


10 s 




25/15 




D-1 


PVA 


PVA1054 


±100 


35 




70 


5.0 


10'° 




25/15 




D-1 




PVA1352 


±100 


50 




315 


5.0 


10 8 




300/50 




D-5 




PVA1354 


±100 


5 




315 


50 


10 10 




300/50 




D-5 




rVA2oi>2 


±200 


24 




130 


5.0 




2500 


100/50 


2 


U-l J 




PVA3054 


±300 


160 




40 


5.0 


1010 




25/15 




D-9 




PVA3055 


±300 


160 




40 


5.0 


ion 




25/15 




D-9 


P 


PVA3324 


±300 


24 




130 


2.0 


to" 




100/50 




D-1 3 




PVA3354 


±300 


24 




130 


50 


10 10 




100/50 




D-1 3 




PVAZ172 


±60 


0.5 




1000 


10 


10 8 


1500 


500/8000 




D-17 


1 Form A 


PVD1052 


+ 100 




8.0 


160 


50 


10 s 




25/15 




D-21 


PVD 


PVD1054 


+ 100 




8.0 


160 


5.0 


10 10 




25/15 




D-21 




PVD1352 
PVD1354 


+ 100 
+ 100 




1.5 
1.5 


500 
500 


50 

5.0 


10 8 


2500 


300/50 
300/50 


02 


D-25 
D-25 


^^^^ 


PVD2352 


+200 




60 


220 


50 


10 8 




100/50 




D-29 




PVD3354 


+ 300 




6.0 


220 


5.0 


10'° 




100/50 




D-29 




PVDZ172 


+ 60 




0.25 


1400 


10 


10 8 


1500 


500/8000 




D-33 


1 Form A 



Part 


Outputs 


Output 
Voltage 

V(DC) 


Short 
Circuit 
Current 

I* 


Nom. Control 
Current 
(DC) 
mA 


Dielectric 
Strength 
Innput/Output 
V(RMS) 


Page 
Number 


Series 


PVI5050 


1 


5.0 


5.0 


10 




E-1 




















PVI5100 


1 


5.0 


10.0 


10 


2500 


E-1 




PVI1050 


2 


5.0/10.0 


10.0/5.0 


10 




E-1 





Wiring Diagram 



DC OUTPUT DC OUTPUT 

OUTP t b :rdi? iJ j 1 



DC INPUT DC INPUT 



,11 ! x 

3 I ™s«» T 5 
pwao ~ 



PVR 



PVA 



PVD 



PVI 



(1) Output for PVD and PVI Series is DC only all others are AC or DC 



B-3 



Microelectronic Relays International 
Safety Standards Qualifications Jgg Rectifier 







<§ 




ChipSwitch 
Part No. 


Underwriters Labs 
Recognition 


Canadian Standards 
Certification 


VDE-Priifstelle 
Certification 




Standard 


File 


Standard 


File 


Standard 


File 


SP1110 




E50015 




Pending 




53105 


SP1210 




E50015 




Pending 




53105 


SP2110 
SP2210 


UL508 


E50015 
E50015 


C22.2 


Pending 
Pending 


VDE0883/6.80 


53105 
53105 


SP6110 




E50015 




Pending 




53105 


SP6210 




E50015 




Pending 




53105 


DP1110 




c 5001 K 








JO IUO 


DP1210 




E50015 




LR32053 




53106 


DP1610 




E50015 




LR32053 




53106 


DP2110 




E50015 




LR32053 




53106 


DP2210 


UL508 


E50015 


C22.2 


LR32053 


VDE0883/6.80 


53106 


DP2610 




E50015 




LR32053 




53106 


DP6110 




E50015 




LR32053 




53106 


DP6210 




E50015 




LR32053 




53106 


DP6610 




E50015 




LR32053 




53106 






E50015 




LR56615 




55448 


CS5010 
CS6005 


UL508 


E50015 
E50015 


C22.2 


LR56615 
LR56615 


VDE0883/6.80 


55448 
55448 


CS6010 




E50015 




LR56615 




55448 


PVA2352 














PVA3324 


UL508 


E88583 










PVA3354 





























B-4 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.016A 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



ChipSwitch DIP Relay 



SERIES CS60 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

300 mA 
20-280V AC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The innovative design of the Series CS60 ChipSwitch solid 
state relay utilizes the S'X power integrated circuit chip 
developed by International Rectifier. Two optically activated 
power ICs are connected in inverse parallel (analogous to 
back-to-back SCRs) and energized by an isolated light emit- 
ting diode (LED). The use of only three components achieves 
both extreme reliability and miniaturization. 

The Series CS60 power IC relays are a normally open con- 
figuration with precise zero voltage turn-on and zero current 
turn off. They conform to the most severe FCC and VDE EMI 
emission requirements. An active snubber network is in- 
tegrated within the S'X chips and provides extremely high 
dv/dt ratings. Therefore, bulky and costly external RC net- 
works are not needed for even low power factor inductive 
loads. The elimination of external snubber leakages, leav- 
ing only the extremely low S'X chip internal leakages, 
allows perfect operation from very low current loads up to 
full rating. 

These devices are ideally suited for interfacing small AC 
power loads to microprocessor outputs. Solenoids, lamps, 
power contactors, small motors, and valves are thereby easily 
controlled by logic level signals. The Series CS60 units also 
make excellent high performance drivers for SCR and triac 
high power output stages. 



WIRING DIAGRAM 




S'X Power IC Chips 
5.0 Amp Surge 
4000V RMS Isolation 
Zero Voltage Turn-On 
EMI Meets FCC/VDE Limits 
Operates Without Snubber 
1200V/usec dv/dt 
10 Microamps Leakage 
% UL Recognized • File E50015 
e CSA Certified File - LR56615 
/fi\VDE File -55448 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Transient 
Overvoltage 


DC Input 
Turn-On (mA) 


CS6005 


600 


5.0 


CS6010 


600 


10.0 


CS5005 


500 


5.0 


CS5010 


500 


10.0 



C-1 



ChipSwitch dip 

ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-30° C s T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Dielectric Strength — Input/Output 


4000 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 500VDC — Input/Output 


10 12 


Ohms 


Tracking Resistance (VDE Test) 


KB100/A 




Max Capacitance — Input/Output 


1.0 


pF 


Ambient Temperature 
Range 


Operating 


- 30 to 86 


°C 


Storage 


-40 to 100 


°c 


Lead Temperature (1.6 mm below seating plane) for 10 sec. 


260 


°C 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-30°C < T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


CS6005 


CS6010 




CS5005 


CS5010 


Units 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED) 
See Fig. 3 


5-25 


10-25 




5-25 


10-25 


mA (DC) 


Max Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V (DC) 


Max Turn-On Current 


5.0 


10 




5.0 


10 


mA (DC) 


Min Turn-Off Current 


0.25 


mA (DC) 


Max Turn-On Time (47-440 Hz) 


0.5 


Cycle 


Max Turn-Off Time (47-440 Hz) 


0.5 


Cycle 


OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


Operating Voltage Range (47-440 Hz) 


20-280 


20-280 


V (RMS) 


Transient Overvoltage (Non-Repetitive) 


600 


500 


V (peak) 


Min Off-State dv/dt (static)© 25°C (See Fig. 4) 


1200 


V/ps 


Max Load Current (See Fig.1)© 


300 


mA (RMS) 


Min Load Current 


0.5 


mA (RMS) 


Power Factor Range 


0.2 to 1.0 




Max Surge Current (Non-Rep) 20 ms (See Fig. 2) 


5.0 


A (peak) 


Max Over Current (Non-Rep) 1 sec 




A (peak) 


Max On-State Voltage Drop @ 0.5A 


2.0 


V (peak) 


Max 1 2 T for Fusing (.01 sec) 


0.2 


A z sec 


Max Zero Voltage Turn-On 


12 


V (peak) 


Max Peak Repetitive Turn-On Voltage @ 15 mA 


1.5 


V (peak) 


Max Off-Stage Leakage Current©® Max. Operating 
Voltage, 25°C 


10 


nA (RMS) 



Data and Specifications subject to change without notice. 

GENERAL NOTES: © Off-state dv / dt test method per EIA/NARM standard RS -443 with V p © LED input current ol zero mA. 
equal to the instantaneous peak of the maximum operating voltage. 



C-2 



ChipSwitch dip 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 



400 



CO 
5 

£ 
< 

E 



300 



200 



30 40 50 60 70 80 
Ambient Temperature (°C) 



90 




Figure 1. Derating Curve 



Figure 2. 



20 



16 

< 

i 

3 

O 

= 8 



CAUTION provide current limitingl 
so thai 25 mA maximum steady- J 
state control current rating is 1 
not exceeded 








1/ 
Ol 


I c 


f I 
> f 




Si 
+ 1 

"o I 
ml 


1 of 

I °? I 

— 1 "D I 

3/ Sf 




0) | 

o 1 
> I 

sf 

CM 


/ * 

-4 — IJ 






Si 







0.5 1.0 1.5 

LED Forward Voltage Drop (Volts DC) 
Figure 3. Input Characteristics (Current Controlled) 



2.0 



10.0 



Pulse Duration (Seconds) 



Maximum Allowable Surge (See Notes Below*) 

*A surge exceeding the upper (Non-Repetitive 
Fault) curve can cause catastrophic failure. This limit is 
an absolute maximum rating and should be used in 
determining current limit or fusing protection techniques. 
Repetitions should not exceed 100 times during the 
normal operating life. 

Exceeding the limit of the lower (Loss of Control) 
curve can cause momentary, but" non-catastrophic, 
inability to instantaneously turn-off the load. Good 
application practice holds the normal, repetitive load 
inrush currents below this limit. 



2400 
2000 

ay 
rL 

2 1600 
o 

J 1200 

•S 800 
o 

I 400 




20 























Measu 
RS-443 


ed per EIA 
. Vp = 40 


/NARM S 

5V. 


andardN, 

























40 60 80 100 

Junction Temperature (°C) 



Figure 4. Typical Static dv/dt Performance 



- 420110 661 Max 

|- — 060(l52)Max. 

e 



) 



O 2 3 



u u 





Mechanical Specifications 
Dimensions: Inches (millimeters) 
Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
.07 oz. (2 grams) 



C-3 



Microelectronic Relay 
Designer's Manual 



International 
S Rectifier 



C-4 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.017B 
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



ChipSwitch DIP Relay 



SERIES DP 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

1 Amp 
20-280V AC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The ChipSwitch DIP uses the exclusive International Rectifier 
S'X power integrated circuit technology to form a fully func- 
tioning solid-state relay. The S'X technology combines 
MOS and bipolar processes, derived from IRs HEXFET 
power MOSFET designs, to eliminate the need for both 
discrete components and hybrid circuits. The basic 
ChipSwitch DIP consists simply of two identical power in- 
tegrated circuits connected in inverse parallel (analogous to 
back-to-back SCRs) for AC control plus an isolated light emit- 
ting diode (LED) for actuation. Voltage controlled models with 
an internal resistor to limit the control current are also 
available 

Extreme reliability is achieved by the reduction of component 
count from approximately 20 discrete components in a con- 
ventional SSR to 3 basic components in the ChipSwitch. The 
power integrated circuits are fabricated in IR's advanced 
MOSFET fabrication plant which achieves standards of 
cleanliness, precision, and consistency unprecedented in the 
manufacture of power semiconductors. 

The ChipSwitch is a normally open SSR of 1 .0 ampere rating 
with precise zero voltage turn-on and zero current turn-off. 
EMI emission conforms to the most severe FCC and VDE 
requirements. 

The devices are ideally suited for interfacing microprocessors 
to AC loads such as small motors, lamps, solenoids, valves, 
and high power motor starters. The economy of the 
ChipSwitch allows the in-house manufacturer to replace 
assemblies of triacs, triac drivers and associated components 
with a highly reliable, miniature, standard SSR. 



WIRING DIAGRAM 



® 



+ 



DC 
CONTROL 
INPUT 



16 




10 




1 




8 



S 3 X Power IC Chips ■ 
30 Amps Surge ■ 
4000V RMS Isolation ■ 
Zero Voltage Tum-On ■ 
EMI Meets FCC/VDE Limits ■ 
Operates Without Snubber ■ 
600V //jsec dv/dt ■ 
10 Microamps Leakage ■ 
TO-116 Pinout ■ 
<w UL Recognized - File E50015 ■ 
« CSA Certified File - LR32053 ■ 
/g\VDE File -53106 ■ 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Transient 
Overvoltage 
(Vpk) 


Operating 
Voltage 
(VRMS) 


DC Input 
Turn-On 


DP1110 
DP1210 
DP1610 


300 


20-140 


5 mA 
10 mA 

3.5 V 


DP2110 
DP2210 
DP2610 


450 


20-280 


5 mA 
10 mA 

3.5 V 


DP6110 
DP6210 
DP6610 


600 


20-280 


5 mA 
10 mA 

3.5 V 



ChipSwitch dip 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-30°C < T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



Dielectric Strength — Input/Output 



4000 



V (RMS) 



Insulation Resistance @ 500VDC — Input/Output 



10" 



Ohms 



Tracking Resistance (VDE Test) 



KB 100/A 



Max Capacitance — Input/Output 



2.0 



Ambient Temperature 
Range 



Operating 



I to 85 



Storage 



-40 to 100 



°C 



Lead Temperature (1.6 mm below seating plane) for 10 sec. 



260 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


DP1110 


DP1210 


DP1610 


DP2110 


DP2210 


□ P2610 


DP6110 


DP6210 


DP6610 


Units 


Control Current Range © 
(see Fig. 3) 


5-25 


10-25 


N/A 


5-25 


10-25 


N/A 


5-25 


10-25 


N/A 


mA (DC) 


Control Voltage Range 
(see Fig. 4) 


N/A 


3.5-7 


N/A 


3.5-7 


N/A 


3.5-7 


V(DC) 


Max Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V(DC) 


Max Turn-On Voltage 


N/A 


3.5 


N/A 


3.5 


N/A 


3.5 


V(DC) 


Min Turn-Off Voltage 


N/A 


0.8 


N/A 


0.8 


N/A 


0.8 


V (DC) 


Min Input Impedance 


N 




270 


N/A 


270 


N/A 


270 


Ohms 


Max Turn-On Current 


5.0 


10 


N/A 


5.0 


10 


N/A 


5.0 


10 


N/A 


mA (DC) 


Min Turn-Off Current 


0.5 


N/A 


0.5 


N/A 


0.5 


N/A 


mA (DC) 


Max Turn-On Time (60 Hz) 


8.3 


mSec 


Max Turn-Off Time (60 Hz) 


8.3 


mSec 


OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


Operating Voltage Range 
(47-440 Hz) 


20-140 


20-280 


20-280 


V (RMS) 


Transient Overvoltage 
(Non-Repetitive) 


300 


450 


600 


V (peak) 


Min Off-State dv/dt (static) ® 
@ Max Rated Voltage (25°C) 


600 


V///S 


Max Load Current 
(see Fig. 1) 


1.0 


A (RMS) 


Min Load Current 


0.5 


mA (RMS) 


Power Factor Range 


0.2 to 1 




Max Surge Current (Non-Rep.) 
Single Cycle 20 ms (see Fig. 2) 


30 


A (peak) 


Max Over Current (Non-Rep.) 
1 sec 


7.5 


A (peak) 


Max On-State Voltage Drop @ 
Rated Current 


1.5 


V (peak) 


Max FT for Fusing 
(.01 sec) 


4.5 


A 2 sec 


Max Zero Voltage Turn-On 


12 


V (peak) 


Max Peak Repetitive Turn-On 
Voltage @ 20mA Input 


1.5 


V (peak) 


Max Off-State Leakage Current® 
@ Max. Operating Voltage, 25°C 


10 


(RMS) 



GENERAL NOTES 



Data and specifications subject to change without notice. 



(T) Off-state dv/dt test method per EIA/NARM standard RS-443 with 
V p equal to the instantaneous Deak of the maximum operating 
voltage. 

® LED input current of zero MA. 



© Current limiting resistor required for current 
controlled models. 



C-6 



ChipSwitch dip 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 




40 50 60 70 
Ambient Temperature (°C) 

Figure 1. Derating Curve 



80 90 







No 


e: Curve represents a non-repetitive uniform 
amplitude Dulse of oiven time and oeak current. 








may 


0°C befor 
be lost du 


i surge 
mg sur 


Contro 


of condu 


tion 










































































t 


ML 

dODEL 
















S 

































.01 .02 .05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 
Surge Duration (Seconds) 

Figure 2. Max. Allowable Surge 



5.0 10 




80 



a. 60 



a 40 



=5 20 







FCC and VDE "A" Limit 

("A" applies to industrial and data processina eauioment) 












F( 


C Part 15 Class A (Docket 20780) 














1 . 


DE 0871/6.78 "A" Limit 
























k 










FC 


C and 
' Bppj 


VDE 08 
es to co 


1/6.7 
nsume 


l"B" L 
■ equi 


Imit 
jmenl) 








CHIP 
_ CQ 


SWITCH 
HDUCTt 


V" B 








V 


MISSIOr 


\ 















































































.01 .02 .05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 
Frequency (Megahertz) 

Figure 5. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference. 

(Measured With DP1XXX and DP2XXX Models) 



MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS 

• TO-116 Pinout 

• Tolerances .015 (.38) unless 
otherwise specified 

• Dimensions in Inches 
(Millimeters) 




0.02 J I C-635) 

fir 



C-7 



Microelectronic Relay 
Designer's Manual 



International 

^Rectifier 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.018B 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



ChipSwitch SIP Relay 



SERIES SP 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

1 .0 Amp (Free Standing) 
3.0 Amps (with Heat Management 

20-280 VAC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The ChipSwitch SIP uses exclusive International Rectifier 
S'X power integrated circuit technology to form a fully func- 
tioning solid-state relay. The S'X technology combines 
MOS and bipolar processes, derived from IRs HEXFET" 
power MOSFET designs, to eliminate the need for both 
discrete components and hybrid circuits. The basic 
ChipSwitch SIP consists of two identical power integrated cir- 
cuits connected in inverse parallel (analogous to back-to-back 
SCRs) for AC control plus an isolated light emitting diode 
(LED) for actuation. 

Extreme reliability is achieved by the reduction of component 
count from approximately 20 discrete components in a con- 
ventional SSR to 3 basic components in the ChipSwitch. The 
power integrated circuits are fabricated in IR's advanced 
MOSFET fabrication plant which achieves standards of 
cleanliness, precision, and consistency unprecedented in the 
manufacture of power semiconductors. 

The ChipSwitch SIP is a normally open SSR of 1 to 3 Amps 
rating with precise zero voltage turn-on and zero current turn- 
off. EMI emission conforms to the most severe FCC and VDE 
requirements. 

The devices are ideally suited for interfacing microprocessors 
to AC loads such as small motors, lamps, solenoids, valves, 
and high power motor starters. The economy of the 
ChipSwitch SIP allows the in-house manufacturer to replace 
assemblies of triacs, triac drivers and associated components 
with a highly reliable, miniature, standard SSR. 



WIRING DIAGRAM 



1 2 



DC 
CONTROL 
INPUT 

+ 

O-W^- 1 

© 



S 3 X Power IC Chips I 
30-40 Amps Surge ■ 
4000V RMS Isolation I 
Zero Voltage Turn-On I 
EMI Meets FCC/VDE Limits I 
Operates Without Snubber I 
600V ///sec dv/dt I 
10 Microamps Leakage ■ 
w UL Recognized - File E50015 i 
® CSA Approval Pending ■ 
4^ VDE File - 53105 I 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Transient 
Overvoltage 
(VPK) 


Operating 
Voltage 
(VRMS) 


DC Input 
Turn-On 


SP1110 
SP1210 


300 


20-140 


5 mA 
10 mA 


SP2110 
SP2210 


450 


20-280 


5 mA 
10 mA 


SP6110 
SP6210 


600 


20-280 


5 mA 
10 mA 



C-9 



ChipSwitch sip 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-30°C s T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 




Units 


Dielectric Strength — Input /Output 


4000 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 500VDC — Input/Output 


10" 


Ohms 


Tracking Resistance (VDE Test) 


KB 100/A 




Max Capacitance — Input/Output 


2.0 


PF 


Ambient Temperature 
Range 


Operating 


- 30 to 85 


°C 


Storage 


-40 to 100 


°C 


Lead Temperature (1.6 mm below seating plane) for 10 sec. 


260 


°c 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


SP1110 


SP1210 


SP2110 


SP2210 


SP6110 


SP6210 


Units 


Control Current Range © 
(see Fig. 3) 


5-25 


10-25 


5-25 


10-25 


5-25 


10-25 


mA (DC) 


Max Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V(DC) 


Max Turn-On Current 


5.0 


10 


5.0 


10 


5.0 


10 


mA (DC) 


Mtn. Turn-Off Current 


0.5 


mA (DC) 


Max Turn-On Time (60 Hz) 


8.3 


mSec 


Max Turn-Off Time (60 Hz) 


8.3 


mSec 



OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 




Units 


Operating Voltage Range 
(47-440 Hz) 


20-140 


20-280 


20-280 


V (RMS) 


Transient Overvoltage 
(Non-Repetitive) 


300 


450 


600 


V (peak) 


Min Off-State dv/dt (static) © 
@ Max Rated Voltage (25 °C) 


600 


V//JS 


Max Load Current 
(See Figs. 1 and 4) 


1.0 A (RMS) Free Standing in 40°C Air. 
3.0 A(RMS) Attached to an infinite heat sink @ 40°C (0js= 7°C/Watt) 


A (RMS) 


Min Load Current 


0.5 


mA (RMS) 


Power Factor Range 


0.2 to 1.0 




Max Surge Current Single Cycle 
(Non-Rep.) 20 ms (see Fig. 2) 


30 


A (peak) 


Max Over Current (Non-Rep.) 
1 sec 


7.5 


A (peak) 


Max On-State Voltage Drop 
@ 1.0A (RMS) 


1.5 


V (peak) 


Max IT for Fusing 
(.01 sec) 


4.5 


A ? sec 


Max Zero Voltage Turn-On 


12 


V (peak) 


Max Peak Repetitive Turn-On 
Voltage @ 20mA Input 


1.5 


V (peak) 


Max Off-State Leakage Current® 
@ Max. Operating Voltage, 25°C 


10 


//A (RMS) 



GENERAL NOTES Data and specifications subject to change without notice. 



© Off-state dv/dt test method per EIA/NARM standard RS-443 with © External current limiting resistor required. 

Vp equal to the instantaneous peak of the maximum operating 

voltage. © LED input current of zero MA. 



C-10 



ChipSwitch sip 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 



20 




40 50 60 70 
Ambient Temperature (°C) 



Figure t Derating Curve, Free Standing 







ii iii i 

Note: Curve represents a n on -repetitive uniform 

amplitude pulse ol given lime and peak current 








may t 


a C before 
* lost dur 


surge 
ng Surg 


Control 
k 


)t conduc 


tioo 
























































/ 

1 


LL 

rfODEL 




















^^^^ 















































.01 .02 .05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 
Surge Duration (Seconds) 



5.0 10 



Figure 2. Maximum Allowable Surge 




80 



60 



-10 



I 20 

UJ 







FCC andd VDE "A" Limil 












F 


;c Pan 1 5 Class A {Docket 20780} 














■ 


r 

yDE 087 


1 /6.78 


r ■ 

"A"U 


mil 








s 






















1 




FC 


C ano 

" Hf)Q 


VDE OB 
■es to c 


71 /6.7 
nsum 


1 "EF 
i gft|u 


.imit 
pment) 








1 

CM 


SWITCr 


^ t 








V C 


INDUCT 
iMISSlO 


b\ 

H «l 
















































































-10 

.01 .02 .05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 50 
Frequency (Megahertz) 

Figure 5. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference. 

(Measured With SP1XXX and SP2XXX models). 



C-11 



MECHANICAL 
SPECIFICATIONS Tolerances 015 (381 unless olnerwise 

.900 

f (22.86) " 



0.460 
(11. 68) 



.730 
(18 54) 

Tyo. 



.100(2.54)^ 
.200(5.08) — 



.03 
(.762) 



-.600(15.24)- 
.800(20.32) 



135 Max 
(3.43) 



0.480 
(12.19) 



0.250(6.35) 
Min. 



Ceramic Substrate 




J015(.38D— JH — 
.025( 635) — ■> ' — 



Power Chips 
(Tjmax.110 o C) 



Temperature Measurement 
Point (R QJC = 10°C/W) 



ChipSwitch sip l^R 



The HC-1 Heat Clip is designed to improve the thermal coupling between the SIP Chipswitch and its ambient. The 
use of a little thermal grease will enhance its performance. The Heat Clip may be used as a stand alone device 
or it can be used to conveniently couple the SIP to a larger heatsink. 



0.120 + 0.003 DIA 
(3.05) ± (0.08) 




-1.02 — 
(25.91) 



rf7 > x, 

I I 



Dimensions in Inches (Millimeters) 



0.030 R (0.76) 
4 PL 



0.07 (1.78) 



0.115 




0.159 
(4.04) 



0.040 R 
(1.02) 



0.20 
(5.08) 



-0.410 - 
(10.41) 



HC-1 Heat Clip, SIP 



C-12 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.019B 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



BOSFEF Photovoltaic Relay 



SERIES PVA10 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Single Pole, 70 mA 
0-1 00V AC/DC 



— 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic AC Relay (PVA) is a single-pole, normally 
open solid state replacement for electro-mechanical relays 
used for general purpose switching of analog signals. It 
utilizes as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or DC) 
MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is con- 
trolled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 



PVA FEATURES 

The P\A overcomes the limitations of both conventional and 
reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state ad- 
vantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. These advantages allow product improve- 
ment and design innovations in many applications such as 
process control, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic 
test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The PVA can switch analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 100 volts peak AC or DC polarity. Signal frequencies into 
the RF range are easily controlled and switching rates up to 
18 kHz are achievable. The extremely small thermally 
generated offset voltages allow increased measurement 
accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVA. The monolithic BOSFET con- 
tains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output struc- 
ture. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry for fast 
turn-off and gate protection functions. This section of the 
BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology to 
form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, diodes 
and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multijunction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVA microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 



(BOSFE7 is a trademark ol International Rectllieri 



BOSFET Power IC 
10 1 ° Operations 
25 |iSec Operating Time 
0.2 nVolt Thermal Offset 
3 milliwatts Pick-Up Power 
1000 V/u.sec dv/dt 
Bounce Free 
8-Pin DIP Package 
-40°C to 85°C 




Part Identification 





Operating 






Part No. 


Voltage 


Sensitivity 


Off-State 




DC 




Resistance 


PVA1052 




5 mA 


10* Ohms 




0-1 00 V 




PVA1054 






10'° Ohms 



D-1 



BOSFET PVA10 Photovoltaic Relay 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C s T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PART NUMBERS 


UNITS 


PVA1052 


PVA1054 


Min. Control Current: (See Figs. 1 & 2) 

For 25 mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 50 mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 15 mA Continuous Load- Current. 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 


(DC) 
mA @ 25°C 
mA @ 40°C 
mA @ 80°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State Resistance at 25° C 


10 


uA (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit 
input LED. (See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V (DC) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PVA1052 PVA1054 




Operating Voltage Range 


+ 100 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1 & 2) 


70 


mA (DC) 


Response Time @ 25°C (See Fig. 7 and 8) 

Max. T( on ) @ 12 mA Control, 50 mA Load, 50 VDC 


25 


us 


Max. T(off) @ 12 mA Control, 50 mA Load, 50 VDC 


15 


us 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (Pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
(50 mA Load 5 mA Control) 


35 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C @ 80 VDC 
(See Fig. 5) 


10" 


10'° 


Ohms 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


u. volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V/us 


Output Capacitance 


3 


pF @ 50 
VDC 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 


ALL MODELS 




Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 


2500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 


10 12 @ 25°C - 50% RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


Pf 


Lead Temperature (1.6 mm below seating plane) 
for 10 seconds 


260 


°C 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°C 


Storage 


-40 to 100 


°C 



r 

n 



n 




[_i i_i 




ioor^ 

(2.54) 

' .200- 

(5.08) 
300(7 62) ^ 



.250 
(6 35) 



Typ 
.300 
(7 62) 



065 
(1.65) 



(381) 



010 
(.251) 



Mechanical Specifications 
Dimensions: Inches (mm) 
Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
Weight: .07 oz. (2 grams) 



Anode 



Wiring Diagram 



Cathode — 



Electromechanical 
Analogy 



Dra 




Dra 



D-2 



BOSFET PVA10 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 






BOSFET PVA10 Photovoltaic Relay performance characteristics curves 




D-4 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.020B 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



BOSFET Photovoltaic Relay 



SERIES PVA13 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Pole, 300 mA 
0-1 00V AC/DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic AC Relay (PVA) is a single-pole, normally 
open solid state replacement tor electro-mechanical relays 
used for general purpose switching of analog signals. It 
utilizes as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or DC) 
MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is con- 
trolled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 



PVA FEATURES 

The PVA overcomes the limitations of both conventional and 
reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state ad- 
vantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. These advantages allow product improve- 
ment and design innovations in many applications such as 
process control, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic 
test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The P\A can switch analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 100 volts peak AC or DC polarity. Signal frequencies into 
the RF range are easily controlled and switching rates up to 
2 kHz are achievable. The extremely small thermally 
generated offset voltages allow increased measurement 
accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the P\A. The monolithic BOSFET con- 
tains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output struc- 
ture. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry for fast 
turn-off and gate protection functions. This section of the 
BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology to 
form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, diodes 
and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVA microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 



(BOSFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 



BOSFET Power IC ■ 
10 10 Operations ■ 
300 A/Sec Operating Time ■ 
0.2 /(Volt Thermal Offset ■ 
3 milliwatts Pick-Up Power ■ 
1000 V//jsec dv/dt ■ 
Bounce Free ■ 
8-Pin DIP Package ■ 
-40° C to 85° C ■ 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 
AC/DC 


Sensitivity 


Off-State 
Resistance 


PVA1352 


0-100V 


5 mA 


10» Ohms 


PVA1354 


10 ,0 Ohms 



D-5 



BOSFET PVA13 Photovoltaic Relay 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C s T A == 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PART NUMBERS 


UNITS 




PVA1352 


PVA1354 




Min. Control Current: 

(See Figs. 1 & 2) For 200 mA Continuous Load Current 
For 250 mA Continuous Load Current 
For 125 mA Continuous Load Current 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 


(DC) 
mA @ 25°C 
mA @ 40°C 
mA@85°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State Resistance at 25°C 


10 


UA (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. 
See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V(DC) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PVA1352 


PVA1354 




Operating Voltage Range 


0± 


100 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1 and 2) 


315 


mA (DC) 


Response Time @ 25°C (See Fig. 7 and 8) 



Max. T (on ) @ 12 mA Control, 50 mA load, 50 VDC 


300 


ps 


Max. T( ff) @ 12 mA Control, 50 mA load, 50 VDC 


50 




Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
50mA Load 5mA Control) 


5 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C @ 80 VDC (See Fig. 5) 


10 s 


10'" 


Ohms 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage, @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


li volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 




Output Capacitance (See Fig. 9) 


15 


pF @ 50 VDC 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 


ALL MODELS 




Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 


2500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC -Input/Output 


10' 2 @ 25°C - 50% RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


pF 


Lead Temperature (1.6mm 
below seating plane) for 10 sec. 


260 


"C 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°C 




Storage 


-40 to 100 


°C 



— .420 [10,66) Max.— 
|- — .060C 5.52) Max. 



_LZL 



_LZL 




U U 



.020_ 
1.508) 



.100 r— 
(2.54) 
— 200 — 

(5.08) 
.300(7.62)- 




.250 
(6.35) 



5M0" 7 



Typ. 

.300 
(7.62) 



.065 
(1.65) 



Mechanical Specifications 
Dimensions: Inches (mm) 
Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
Weight: .07 oz. (2 grams) 



Anode 



Wiring Diagram 



Cathode -4 



Electromechanical 
Analogy 



D-6 




Drain 



AC/DC 



Drain 



BOSFET PVA1 3 performance characteristics curves 




20 40 60 80 100 12 5 10 20 

Ambient Temperature °C I L £ D CmA) 

Figure 1. Current Derating Curves Figure 2. Typical Control Current Requirements 




0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 -40 -20 20 40 60 80 100 

V DD (V° lts ) Ambient Temperature °C 

Figure 3. Typical On Characteristics Figure 4. Typical On-Resistance 




D-7 



BOSFET PVA13 PhotoVoltaic Relay performance characteristics curves 



20 



10 



< 

£ 5 



































































































































































































































































'of 












Jdly 
















'on 




















: 5 


Jr 


nA 









10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 
Delay Time (ps) 

Figure 7. Typical Delay Times 




Figure 8. Delay Time Definitions 



100 




10 20 30 40 

V DD . Drain to Drain Voltage 

Figure 9. Typical Output Capacitance 



50 



D-8 



Data Sheet No. PD-1 .030A 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



SERIES PVA30 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 



BOSFET® Photovoltaic Relay 



Single Pole, 40 mA 
0-300V AC/DC 



— 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic AC Relay (PVA) is a single-pole, normally 
open solid state replacement for electro-mechanical relays 
used for general purpose switching of analog signals. It utilizes 
as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or DC) 
MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is con- 
trolled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, which 
is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated light 
emitting diode (LED). 

PVD FEATURES 

The PVA30 Series combines very low solid state output 
capacitance, very high off-state resistance and very fast 
response. These Photovoltaic Relays are designed specifically 
to accurately switch low level signals in high performance in- 
strumentation systems. 

The PVA overcomes the limitations of both conventional and 
reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state ad- 
vantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up power, 
bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and miniaturiza- 
tion. These advantages allow product improvement and 
design innovations in many applications such as process con- 
trol, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic test equip- 
ment, and data acquisition. 

The PVA30 Series can switch analog signals from thermo- 
couple level to 300 volts peak AC or DC polarity. Signal fre- 
quencies into the RF range are easily controlled and switching 
rates up to 25 kHz are achievable. 

The extremely small thermally generated offset voltages allow 
increased measurement accuracies. The critical output 
semiconductors are completely shielded from the infra-red 
radiation of the input LED. Therefore, photocurrents in the out- 
put BOSFET are nonexistent and there is not an output off- 
set resulting from radiation from the input LED drive. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVA. The monolithic BOSFET con- 
tains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output struc- 
ture. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry for fast 
turn-off and gate protection functions. This section of the 
BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology to 
form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, diodes 
and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multijunction structure. The excellent 
current conversion efficiency of this technique results in the 
very fast response of the PVA microelectronic power IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop 
switching systems to new standards of electrical performance 
and mechanical compactness. 

(Bosfet is a trademark of International Rectifier) 



BOSFET Power IC 
10 10 Operations 
25m Sec Operating Time 
Low Output Capacitance 
0.2/xVolt Thermal Offset 
Offset independent of input drive 
3 milliwatts Pick-Up Power 
l000V//isec dv/dt 
Bounce Free 
8 Pin DIP Package 
-40°C to 85°C 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 
AC/DC 


Sensivity 


Off-State 
Resistance 


PVA3054 


0-300V 


5 mA 


10 '"ohms 


PVA3055 


10 11 ohms 



D-9 



BOSFET PVA30 Photovoltaic Relay 







ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C < T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PART NUMBERS 


UNITS 


1 

PVA3054 PVA3055 


Min. Control Current: (See Fig. 1) 

For 40 mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 22 mA Continuous Load Current. 


5.0 
5.0 


(DC) 
mA @ 40°C 
mA @ 60°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State Resistance at 25° C 


10 


uA (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit 
input LED. (See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V (DC) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PVA3054 


PVA3055 




Operating Voltage Range 


0±300 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1) 


40 


mA (DC) 


Response Time @ 25°C (See Fig. 7 and 8) 

Max. T (on) @ 12 mA Control, 20 mA Load, 100 VDC 


25 


Ms 


Max T. (off) @ 12 mA Control, 20 mA Load, 100 VDC 


15 


US 


Max. On-State Resistance at 25°C (pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
(10 mA Load 5 mA Control) 


160 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C @ 240 VDC 


10* 


10" 


Ohms 


Max. Off-State Leakage at 25°C @ 5.0 VDC (See fig. 5) 




0.05 


nA 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage @ 5.0 mA Control Vq (qS) 


0.2 


\i volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V/u.s 


Max. Output Capacitance (See Fig. 9) 


3.0 


pF @ 40 
VDC 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 


ALL MODELS 




Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 


2500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 


10" @ 25°C - 50% RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


pf 


Lead Temperature (1.6 mm below seating plane) 
for 1 seconds 


260 


°C 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°c 


Storage 


-40 to 100 


°c 



- .420 (10 66) Max — 
h 060(1 52) Max 













8 

) 


5 




O 2 


3 
















s--, .>"y 








.250 
(635) 






Typ. 
300 
(7.62] 


1 






il 










.065 
(1.65) 


i 


'-*--■» 1 

010 
(.254) 



Mechanical Specifications 
Dimensions: Inches (mm) 
Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
Weight: .07 oz. (2 grams) 



Anode 



Wiring Diagram 



Cathode -3 



Electromechanical 
Analogy 

D-10 




Drain 



AC/DC 



Drain 



BOSFET PVA30 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 






Offstate Voltage (V D0 ) Volts LED Forward Voltage Drop (Volts DC) 

Figure 5. Typical Variation of Offstate Leakage Current Figure 6. Input Characteristics (Current Controlled) 



D-11 




D-12 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.021B 
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



SERIES PVA33 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 



le Pole, 130 mA 

— n . ...... — . 0-300V AC/DC 

BOSFET Photovoltaic Relay 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic AC Relay (P\A) is a single-pole, normally 
open solid state replacement for electro-mechanical relays 
used for general purpose switching of analog signals. It 
utilizes as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or DC) 
MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is con- 
trolled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 



PVA FEATURES 

The PVA overcomes the limitations of both conventional and 
reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state ad- 
vantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. These advantages allow product improve- 
ment and design innovations in many applications such as 
process control, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic 
test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The P\A can switch analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 300 volts peak AC or DC polarity. Signal frequencies into 
the RF range are easily controlled and switching rates up to 
5 kHz are achievable. The extremely small thermally 
generated offset voltages allow increased measurement 
accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the P\A. The monolithic BOSFET con- 
tains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output struc- 
ture. In addition, this power ICchip has input circuitry for fast 
turn-off and gate protection functions. This section of the 
BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology to 
form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, diodes 
and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVA microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 



(BOSFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 



BOSFET Power IC ■ 
10 1 ° Operations ■ 
100 ( Sec Operating Time ■ 
0.2 .Volt Thermal Offset ■ 
3 milliwatts Pick-Up Power ■ 
1000 V/ M sec dv/dt ■ 
Bounce Free ■ 
8-Pin DIP Package ■ 
-40° C to 85° C" 
% UL Recognized - File E88583 ■ 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 
AC /DC 


Sensitivity 


Off-State 
Resistance 


PVA2352 


0-200V 


5 mA 


10 8 Ohms 


PVA3324 


0-300V 


2 mA 


10 10 Ohms 


PVA3354 


5 mA 


10 1 <> Ohms 



D-13 



BOSFET PVA33 Photovoltaic Relay 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS {-40°C s T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 




PART NUMBERS 




UNITS 


PVA2352 


PVA3324 


PVA3354 


Min. Control Current: 

(See Figs. 1 & 2) For 20 mA Continuous Load Current. 

For 100 mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 10 mA Continuous Load Current. 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 


1.0 
2.0 
2.0 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 


(DC) 
mA@25°C 
mA @ 25°C 
mA @ 85°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State Resistance at 25°C 


10 


,uA (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. 
See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V(DC) 


Response Time (See Fig. 7 and 8) 
Max. T( 0n ) @ 12 mA Control, 50 mA load, 100 VDC, 
25°C, to 90% 


100 


microsec 


Max. T( ff) @12mA control, 50 mA load. 100 VDC, 
25 °C, 100% to 10% 


50 


microsec 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PVA2352 


PVA3324 


PVA3354 




Operating Voltage Range 


0±200 


± 300 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1 and 2) 


130 


mA (DC) 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
(50mA Load 5mA Control) 


24 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C (See Fig. 5) 


10» @ 160VDC 


10'»@ 240 VDC 


Ohms 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage, @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


(J volts 


Min. Off- State dv/dt 


1000 


V///S 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 10} 


12 


pf @ 50 VDC 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS; 



ALL MODELS 



Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 



V (RMS) 



Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 



10'* @ 25°C - 50% RH 



Ohms 



Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 



Lead Temperature (1.6mm 
below seating plane ) for 10 sees. 



260 



Ambient Temperature Range: 



Operating 



-40 to 85 



Storage 



-40 to 100 



Mechanical Specifications: 

Dimensions in Inches(Millimeters) 
Jedec MO-001-An 



(.254) ~T~ 
C3 Plcsjl 



n n 




06011.52] Max. — -j U- 
-.420(10.66) Max. 1 



150 
(381) 



065 
_l_ 



.010— 
(.254) 



5°-10' 
Typ. M 
-.300(7.62) 




.100 1— 
(2.54) 
-.200— 
(5,08) 

- .300(7,62)- 



Wiring Diagram 



Electromechanical Analogy 



D-14 



8 AC or DC 5 




+ 2 



2mA To Operate 



BOSFET PVA33 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 






D-15 



BOSFET PVA33 PhotoVoltaic Relay performance characteristics curves 





D-16 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.022B 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER I«R 



MOSFET Photovoltaic Relay 



SERIES PVAZ1 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Single Pole, 1.0A 
0-60V AC/DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic Relay PVAZ172 Is a single-pole, normally 
open (Form 1 A) solid state replacement for low current elec- 
tromechanical relays. It will control power loads up to +60 
volts peak (bidirectional or DC) at currents up to 1 .0 amperes. 
The solid state output section consists of two N channel 
HEXFET® power MOSFETs in inverse series connection to 
provide bidirectional operation. The HEXFET output stage 
is actuated by a multicell photovoltaic generator of novel con- 
struction. Input isolation is provided by a light emitting diode 
(LED) whose radiation is coupled through a solid, transparent 
dielectric to energize the photovoltaic generator. 



PVAZ172 FEATURES 

The PVAZ172 overcomes the limitations of both conventional 
and reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state 
advantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. Operating life up to 10'° operations is 
achieved with direct logic level signal compatibility in a 
package volume of less than 0.016 cubic inches. Relays may 
be paralleled for lower on-resistance and higher current 
capability. 

The HEXFETs used in the output have widespread recogni- 
tion as the leading power MOSFET design and the most 
reliable power transistor ever produced. The photovoltaic 
generator in this relay similarly uses a unique International 
Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The excellent cur- 
rent conversion efficiency of this technique results in the high 
sensitivity and high speed of this microelectronic power IC 
relay. 



This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers of process control, 
interface modules, telecommunications systems and 
automatic test equipment can now develop switching systems 
to new standards of electrical performance and mechanical 
compactness. 



10 10 Operations 
500 //Sec Turn-On Time 
0.5 Ohm On-Resistance 
0.2 //Volt Thermal Offset 
10 milliwatts Pick-Up Power 
1000 V///Sec dv/dt 
Bounce Free 
8-Pin DIP Package 
-40°C to 85°C 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 
AC/ DC 


Sensitivity 


Off. State 
Resistance 


PVAZ172 


0-60 


10mA 


10" Ohms 



(HEXFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 



D-17 



PVAZ1 Photovoltaic Relay 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C < TA 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 




PART NUMBERS 


1 IMITC 

UNITS 






r VAil l £ 




Min. Control Current: 

(See Figs. 1 & 2) For 1.0 A Continuous Load Current 
For 1.0 A Continuous Load Current 
For 0.3 A Continuous Load Current 


10 
20 
10 


(DC) 
mA @ 25°C 
mA @ 40°C 
mA @ 85°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State F 


esistance at 25°C 


10 


M (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. 
See Fig. 6) 


4.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V(DC) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 




UNITS 


Operating Voltage Range 


+ 60 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1 and 2) 


1.0 


A (DC) 


Response Time @ 25°C (See Fig. 7 and 8) 


0.5 


millisec 


Max. T( 0n ) @ 12 mA Control, 500 mA load, 50 VDC, 


Max. T( ff) @ 12mA control, 500 mA load, 50 VDC 


10 


millisec 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
1.0A Load 10mA Control 


0.5 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C @ 48 VDC (See Fig. 5) 


10= 


Ohms 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage. @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


y volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V///S 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 9) 


120 


pF @ 50 VDC 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 




UNITS 


Dielectric Strength-Input/ Output 


1500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 


10« @ 25°C - 50% RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


pF 


Lead Temperature (1.6mm 
below seating plane) for 10 sec. 


260 


°C 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°C 




Storage 


-40 to 100 


°C 



Mechanical Specifications: 



— .420(1066) Max. — 

1— 060(1.52) Max. 
£J O. 



) 



3 



u u 





s: Inches (mm) 
Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
Weight: .07 oz. (2 grams) 



Wiring Diagrams: 



Schematic 



Cathode 



Electromechanical 
Analogy 




D-18 



PVAZ1 Photovoltaic Relay 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 






Ambient Temperature °C 
Figure 5. Normalized Off-State Leakage 




LED Forward Voltage Drop (Volts DC) 
Figure 6. Input Characteristics (Current Controlled) 



D-19 



PVAZ1 Photovoltaic Relay 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC CURVES 





D-20 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.023B 
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



BOSFEF Photovoltaic Relay 



SERIES PVD10 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Single Pole, 160 mA 
0-1 00V DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic DC Relay (PVD) is a single-pole, normally 
open solid state replacement for electromechanical relays us- 
ed for general purpose switching of analog signals. It utilizes 
as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or DC) 
MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is con- 
trolled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 

PVD FEATURES 

The PVD overcomes the limitations of both conventional and 
reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state ad- 
vantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. These advantages allow product improve- 
ment and design innovations in many applications such as 
process control, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic 
test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The PVD can switch analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 100 volts peak DC. Signal frequencies into the RF range 
are easily controlled and switching rates up to 18 kHz are 
achievable. The extremely small thermally generated offset 
voltages allow increased measurement accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVD. The monolithic BOSFET 
contains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output 
structure. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry 
for fast turn-off and gate protection functions. This section 
of the BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology 
to form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, 
diodes and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVD microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 

(BOSFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 



BOSFET Power IC 
10'° Operations 
25 i-iSec Operation Time 
3 milliwatts Pick-Up Power 
1000 V/nsec dv/dt 
Bounce Free 
8-Pin DIP Package 
-40°C to 85°C 




Part Identification 





Operating 






Part No. 


Voltage 


Sensitivity 


Off-State 




DC 




Resistance 


PVD1052 


0-1 oov 




10* Ohms 




5 mA 


PVD1054 






10'° Ohms 



D-21 



BOSFET PVD10 Photovoltaic Relay 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C <Tj< 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PART NUMBERS 


UNITS 


PVD1052 PVD1054 


Min. Control Current: (See Figs. 1 & 2) 

For 80 mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 130 mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 50 mA Continuous Load Current. 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 


(DC) 
mA @ 25° C 
mA @ 40°C 
mA @ 85°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State Resistance at 25°C 


10 


uA (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit 
input LED. (See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V (DC) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 






Operating Voltage Range 


to +100 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1) 


160 


mA (DC) 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (Pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
(50 mA Load 5 mA Control) 


8.0 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C (See Fig. 5) 


10" #80 VDC | 10'° @ 80 VDC 


Ohms 


Response Time (See Fig. 7 and 8) 
Max. T(on) 12 mA Control, 50 mA Load, 50 VDC, 
25°C, to 90% 

Max. T(off) @ 12 mA Control, 50 mA Load, 50 VDC, 
25° C, 100% to 10% (See Fig. 7) 


25 


microsec 


15 


microsec 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


u. volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 V/(is 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 9) 


8.0 pf @ 50 VDC 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 


ALL MODELS 




Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 


2500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 


10' 2 @ 25°C - 50% RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


Pf 


Lead Temperature (1.6 mm below seating plain) 
for 10 seconds 


260 


°C 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°c 


Storage 


-40 to 100 


°c 




250 
(6.35) 



Typ 

.300 
(7.621 



JU 



-065 
(1.65) 

— .150 - 
(3.8 



(.254) 



Mechanical Specifications 
Dimensions: Inches (mm) 
Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
Weight: .07 oz. (2 grams) 



Wiring Diagrams 



Schematic 



Anode 



Cathode 




Electromechanical + 
Analogy 



D-22 



Load 



BOSFET PVD10 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 






D-23 



BOSFET PVD10 Photo Voltaic Relay performance characteristics curves 




D-24 



Data Sheet No. PD-1 .024B 
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER TOR 



SERIES PVD13 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Single Pole, 500 mA 

BOSFET" Photovoltaic Relay 100V DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic DC Relay (PVD) is a single-pole, normally 
open solid state replacement for electromechanical relays us- 
ed for general purpose switching of analog signals. It utilizes 
as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or DC) 
MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is con- 
trolled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 



PVD FEATURES 

The PVD overcomes the limitations of both conventional and 
reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state ad- 
vantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. These advantages allow product improve- 
ment and design innovations in many applications such as 
process control, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic 
test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The PVD can switch analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 100 volts peak DC. Signal frequencies into the RF range 
are easily controlled and switching rates up to 2 kHz are 
achievable. The extremely small thermally generated offset 
voltages allow increased measurement accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVD. The monolithic BOSFET 
contains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output 
structure. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry 
for fast turn-off and gate protection functions. This section 
of the BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology 
to form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, 
diodes and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVD microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 



(BOSFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 



BOSFET Power IC ■ 
10" Operations ■ 
3 00 //Sec Operating Time ■ 
3 milliwatts Pick-Up Power ■ 
1000 V/jusec dv/dt ■ 
Bounce Free ■ 
8-Pin DIP Package ■ 
-40° C to 85° C ■ 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 
DC 


Sensitivity 


Off-State 
Resistance 


PVD1352 


0-100V 


5 mA 


10» Ohms 


PVD 1354 


10'° Ohms 



D-25 



BOSFET PVD13 Photovoltaic Relay 



IOR 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C s T A s 85°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PART NUMBERS 


UNITS 


PVD1352 


PVD1354 


Min. Control Current 

(See Figs. 1 & 2) For 300 mA Continuous Load Current. 

For 400 mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 150 mA Continuous Load Current 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 


(DC) 
mA @ 25°C 
mA @ 40°C 
mA @ 85 °C 


Max. Control Current tor Off-State Resistance at 25°C 


10 


M (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. 
See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V(DC) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 






Operating Voltage Range 


0to + 100 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1) 


500 


mA (DC) 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (Pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
(200mA Load 5mA Control) 


1.5 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C (See Fig. 5) 


10= @ 80 VDC 


10'°@80 VDC 


Ohms 


Response Time (See Fig. 7 and 8) 


300 


microsec 


Max. T( on ) 12 mA Control, 50 mA load, 100 VDC, 

25°C, to 90% 
Max. T( ff) @ 12 mA control, 50 mA load, 100 VDC, 

25°C, 100% to 10% (See Fig. 8) 


50 


microsec 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage, @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


y volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V/;*s 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 10) 


12 


pf @ 50 VDC 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 


ALL MODELS 




Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 


2500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 


10"@25°C-50%RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


pf 


Lead Temperature (1.6mm 
below seating plain) for 10 sees. 


260 


°C 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°C 


Storage 


-40 to 100 °C 



Mechanical Specifications: 



420(1066) Max. 

060(1.52) Max. 

n 



r 



8 



3 



O 2 3 



l_t u 




(2.54) 
—.200— 

(5.08) 
r- 300(7 62) — - 




(1.65) .010 
U.soJ « M 
(3.81) 



Dimensions in Inches(Millimeters) 
Jedec M0-O01-An 



Wiring Diagrams 



Schematic 




Drain 



Electromechanical +| 
Analogy 






.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 
V DS (Volts) 

Figure 3. Typical On Characteristics 



1.2 



1.4 



-50 -25 25 50 75 
Ambient Temperature °C 



100 125 



Figure 4. Typical Normalized On-Resistance 






D-28 



Data Sheet No. PD-1 .025B 
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



BOSFEF Photovoltaic Relay 



SERIES PVD33 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Single Pole, 220 mA 
0-300V DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic DC Relay (PVD) is a single-pole, normally 
open solid state replacement for electromechanical relays us- 
ed for general purpose switching of analog signals. It utilizes 
as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or DC) 
MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is con- 
trolled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 

PVD FEATURES 

The PVD overcomes the limitations of both conventional and 
reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state ad- 
vantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. These advantages allow product improve- 
ment and design innovations in many applications such as 
process control, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic 
test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The PVD can switch analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 100 volts peak DC. Signal frequencies into the RF range 
are easily controlled and switching rates up to kHz are 
achievable. The extremely small thermally generated offset 
voltages allow increased measurement accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVD. The monolithic BOSFET 
contains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output 
structure. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry 
for fast turn-off and gate protection functions. This section 
of the BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology 
to form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, 
diodes and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVD microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 



(BOSFET Is a trademark ol International Rectifier) 



BOSFET Power IC 
10 10 Operations 
100 /j&ec Operating Time 
3 milliwatts Pick-Up Power 
1000 V//isec dv/dt 
Bounce Free 
8-Pin DIP Package 
-40°C to 85°C 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 
DC 


Sensitivity 


Off-State 
Resistance 


PVD2352 


200 


5 mA 


10 8 Ohms 


PVD3354 


300 


10 10 Ohms 



D-29 



BOSFET PVD33 Photovoltaic Relay 




ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C <T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 


INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PART NUMBERS 


UNITS 


PVD2352 PVD3354 




Min. Control Current: 

(See Figs. 1 & 2) For 160mA Continuous Load Current. 

For 200mA Continuous Load Current. 
For 90 mA Continuous Load Current. 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 


(DC) 
mA @ 25 °C 
mA @ 40°C 
mA @ 85°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State Resistance at 25°C 


10 


M (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. 
See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V(DC) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 




UNITS 


Operating Voltage Range 


200 300 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1) 


220 


mA (DC) 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (Pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
(50mA Load 5mA Control) 


6 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C (See Fig. 5) 


10 s @ 160 VDC 10 10 @ 240 VDC 


Ohms 


Response Time @ 25°C (See Fig. 7 and 8) 

Max. T(on) @ 12mA Control, 50 mA load, 100 VDC 


100 


//s 


Max. T(off) @ 12mA Control, 50 mA load, 100 VDC 


50 


V* 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage, @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


li volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V///S 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 9) 


20 


pF@50 VDC 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 


ALL MODELS 


UNITS 


Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 


2500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 


10' 2 @ 25°C - 50% RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


pF 


Lead Temperature (1.6mm 
below seating plane) for 10 sec. 


260 


°c 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°c 


Storage 


-40 to 100 


°c 



Mechanical Specifications: 




.135 Dimensions: Inches (mm) 
. I " " ] Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
T Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
Weight: .07 oz. (2 grams) 



Wiring Diagrams 



Schematic 



Anode 



Cathode 




Source 



Drain 



2 




8 


Electromechanical +j 
Analogy 

T 






! 


Loadj^ 


3 




5 



D-30 





.4 .8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 -40 -20 20 40 60 80 100 

V DS ( Volts ) Ambient Temperature °C 

Figure 3. Typical On Characteristics Figure 4. Typical On-Resistance 




D-31 




n 250 




10 20 30 40 50 

Vqs. Drain to Source Voltage 

Figure 9. Typical Output Capacitance 



60 



Data Sheet No. PD-1 .026B 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER IOR 

i 

SERIES PVDZ1 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 



MOSFET Photovoltaic Relay 



Single Pole, 1 .4A 
0-60V DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The International Rectifier Photovoltaic DC Relay PVDZ172 
is a single-pole, normally open solid state replacement for 
electromechanical relays used for general purpose switching 
to DC loads. It utilizes as an output switch a unique MOSFET 
power IC controlled by a photovoltaic generator of novel con- 
struction, which is energized by radiation from a dielectrical- 
ly isolated light emitting diode (LED). 

PVDZ172 FEATURES 

The PVDZ172 overcomes the limitations of both conventional 
and reed electromechanical relays by offering the solid state 
advantages of long life, high operating speed, low pick-up 
power, bounce free operation, low thermal voltages and 
miniaturization. These advantages allow product improve- 
ment and design innovations in many applications such as 
process control, multiplexing, telecommunications, automatic 
test equipment, and signal conditioning. 

The PVDZ1 can switch analog signals from thermocouple 
level to 60 volts DC. Signal frequencies into the audio range 
are easily controlled and switching rates up to 100 Hz are 
achievable. The extremely small thermally generated offset 
voltages allow increased measurement accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVDZ172. The photovoltaic 
generator similarly utilizes a unique International Rectifier 
alloyed multi-junction structure. The excellent current con- 
version efficiency of this technique results in the very fast 
response of the PVDZ1 microelectronic opwer IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers of process control, 
interface modules, telecommunications systems and 
automatic test equipment can now develop switching systems 
to new standards of electrical performance and mechanical 
compactness. 



10'° Operations ■ 
500 ,uSec Turn-On Time ■ 
0.25 Ohm On-Resistance ■ 
100:1 Current Transfer Ratio ■ 
10 Milliwatts Pick-Up Power ■ 
1000 V//;Sec dv/dt ■ 
Bounce Free ■ 
8-Pin DIP Package ■ 
-40°Cto85°C ■ 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 
DC 


Sensitivity 


Off. State 
Resistance 


PVDZ172 


0-60 


10mA 


10 s Ohms 



D-33 



- 



PVDZ1 Photovoltaic Relay 



— 







ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40X < TA 85 °C 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


PART NUMBERS 


UNITS 


PVDZ172 


Min. Control Current 

(See Figs. 1 & 2) For 1.4 A Continuous Load Current 
For 0.6 A Continuous Load Current 


20 
10 


(DC) 
mA @ 40°C 
mA @ 85°C 


Max. Control Current for Off-State Resistance at 25°C 


10 


*iA (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. 
See Fig. 6) 


4.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max Reverse Voltage 


7.0 

' 


V(DC) 
1 









OUTPUT f*HARAf*TFRI^Ttf*^ 




UNITS 


Operating Voltage Range 


to 60 


V (peak) 


May 1 nad Purrpnt 4fl°C f'-Spp Fin 1 and 9\ 


1.4 


A (DC) 


Rocnnncc Time fri". O^^C /Qtio Pin 7 and R\ 
nespui i:>e I line \im v_. ^tjc riy. f diiu o/ 

Max. T(on) @ 12 m ^ Control, 500 mA load, 50 VDC, 


0.5 


millisec 


Max. T( tf) @ 12mA control. 500 mA load, 50 VDC 


8.0 


millisec 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (pulsed) (See Fig. 4) 
1.0A Load 10mA Control 


0.25 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 25°C @ 48 VDC (See Fig. 5) 


10 s 


Ohms 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage, @ 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


Ii volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V//JS 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 9) 


150 


pF @ 50 VDC 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 




UNITS 


Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 


1500 


V (RMS) 


Insulation Resistance @ 90 VDC-lnput/Output 


10" @ 25°C - 50% RH 


Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


PF 


Lead Temperature (1.6mm 
below seating plane) for 10 sec. 


260 


°C 


Ambient Temperature Range: 


Operating 


-40 to 85 


°c 




Storage 


-40 to 100 


°c 



Mechanical Specifications: 

— .420 ( 

£1 



-.420110.66) Max. 

-060[l.52)Max. 

I~i 



i_i u 




f3 



Typ. 
.300 
(7.62) 



s: Inches (mm) 
Package Size: 8 Pin DIP 
Tolerances: .015 (.38) 
unless otherwise specified 
Case Material: Molded epoxy 
Weight: .07 02. (2 grams) 



Wiring Diagrams: 



Schematic 



Anode - 
Cathode - 









2 










8 










r 




3 




1 




5 






+ 



- Source 



DC 



- Drain 




D-34 



PVDZ1 Photovoltaic Relay 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 






D-35 



PVDZ1 Photovoltaic Relay 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 




Data Sheet No. PD-1.027B 



INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



BOSFEF Photovoltaic Relay 



SERIES PVR13 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Two Pole, 400 mA 
0-1 00V AC/DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic Relay (PVR) is a two pole, normally open 
solid state replacement for electromechanical reed relays. 
It utilizes as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or 
DC) MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is 
controlled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 



PVR FEATURES 

The PVR overcomes the limitations of reed relays by offer- 
ing the solid state advantages of long life, high operating 
speed, low pick-up power, bounce free operation, low ther- 
mal voltages and miniaturization. These advantages allow 
product improvement and design innovations in many ap- 
plications such as process control, multiplexing, telecom- 
munications, automatic test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The PVR switches analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 100 volts peak AC or DC polarity. Signal frequencies into 
the RF range are easily controlled and switching rates up to 
5 kHz are achievable. The extremely small thermally 
generated offset voltages allow increased measurement 
i. 



Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVR. The monolithic BOSFET 
contains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output 
structure. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry 
for fast turn-off and gate protection functions. This section 
of the BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology 
to form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, 
diodes and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVR microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 



(BOSFET. Is a trademark of International Ractltiar) 



BOSFET Power IC ■ 
10 10 Operations ■ 
300 /i/Sec Operating Time ■ 
0.2 |iVolt Thermal Offset ■ 
5 milliwatts Pick-Up Power ■ 
i0O0V/usec dv/dt ■ 
Bounce Free ■ 
16 Pin Dip 2 Form A ■ 
-40°C to 85°C ■ 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 


Off-state 
Resistance 


PVR1300 


0-1 00V AC/DC 


10* ohms 


PVR1301 




10 10 ohms 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 




Source 
(14/11) 



Anode | 

(3/5) • — .*J 

(4/6) • 

Cathode 

i (16/9) 
(Pole 1/Pole 2) D™" 



D-37 



BOSFET PVR13 Photovoltaic Relay | IOR 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40°C s T A s 85°C unless otherwise specified) 

(See Wiring Diagrams) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS (See Fig. 4) 


"A" Connection 


"C" Connection 


Units 


Min. Allowable Control Current: 

For 100 mA Continuous Load Current @ 25°C 
For 400 mA Continuous Load Current @ 25°C 
For 100 mA Continuous Load Current @ 85°C 


1 

10 
10 


1 

5 

7 


mA (DC) 
mA (DC) 
mA (DC) 


Min. Turn-Off Current 
Min. Turn-Off Voltage 


10 
0.6 


uA (DC) 
V (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. See Fig. 9) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V (DC) 


Response Time (See Fig. 7) 

Max. T( 0n ) @ 12 mA Control, 100 mA load, 100 VDC, 25°C, to 90% 
Max. T( ff) @ 12 mA Control, 100 mA load, 100 VDC, 25°C, 100% to 10% 


300 
50 


microsec 
microsec 



OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 


±100 


to +100 


V (peak) 


Operating Voltage Range 


Max. Load Current 40°C (See Fig. 1) 


400 


700 


mA (DC) 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (Pulsed) (See Fig. 2) 
(100 mA load, 12 mA Control) 


5.0 


1.5 


Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance at 80 VDC, 25°C PVR1300 

PVR1301 


1 x 10* 
1 x 10'° 


Ohms 
Ohms 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage, 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


u volts 


Min. Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V us 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 10) 


20 40 


pf @ 20 VDC 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 






Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 

Insulation Resistance @ 500 VDC-lnput/Output 


1500 

10 ,z @ 25°C - 50% RH 


V (RMS) 
Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


pf 


Ambient Temperature Range: Operating 
Ambient Temperature Range: Storage 


-40 to 85 
-40 to 100 


°C 
°C 



Mechanical Specifications: 

• Tolerances .015 (.38) unless otherwise specified 

• Dimensions in inches (millimeters) 



16 


14 11 


— i — ' 
9 


10 


3 4 5 6 


8 


— 


— I — I i — ii I I I — 

.650(21.59) 







-.375(9.53)-! 
—.475(12.06)- 

-.575(14.61) • 

.775(19.69) 



(.254) 



Si 



Wiring Diagrams 
(Pole 1 illustrated) 



"A" Connection 



1 



Load 

1? DC " B " Connection 

Only 



,14 



r 4 li+ 



Load 

"dc 
Only 



"C" Connection 



--"14 



D-38 



BOSFET PVR13 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 






D-39 



BOSFET PVR13 PhotoVoltaic Relay performance characteristics curves 




D-40 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.028C 
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



I©R 



BOSFET Photovoltaic Relay 



SERIES PVR33 

Microelectronic 
Power IC Relay 

Two Pole, 180 mA 
0-300V AC/DC 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic Relay (PVR) is a two pole, normally open 
solid state replacement for electromechanical reed relays. 
It utilizes as an output switch a unique bidirectional (AC or 
DC) MOSFET power IC termed a BOSFET. The BOSFET is 
controlled by a photovoltaic generator of novel construction, 
which is energized by radiation from a dielectrically isolated 
light emitting diode (LED). 

PVR FEATURES 

The PVR overcomes the limitations of reed relays by offer- 
ing the solid state advantages of long life, high operating 
speed, low pick-up power, bounce free operation, low ther- 
mal voltages and miniaturization. These advantages allow 
product improvement and design innovations in many ap- 
plications such as process control, multiplexing, telecom- 
munications, automatic test equipment, and data acquisition. 

The PVR switches analog signals from thermocouple level 
to 300 volts peak AC or DC polarity. Signal frequencies into 
the RF range are easily controlled and switching rates up to 
5 kHz are achievable. The extremely small thermally 
generated offset voltages allow increased measurement 
accuracies. 

Unique silicon technology developed by International Rec- 
tifier forms the heart of the PVR. The monolithic BOSFET 
contains a bidirectional N channel power MOSFET output 
structure. In addition, this power IC chip has input circuitry 
for fast turn-off and gate protection functions. This section 
of the BOSFET chip utilizes both bipolar and MOS technology 
to form NPN transistors, P channel MOSFETs, resistors, 
diodes and capacitors. 

The photovoltaic generator similarly utilizes a unique Inter- 
national Rectifier alloyed multi-junction structure. The ex- 
cellent current conversion efficiency of this technique results 
in the very fast response of the PVR microelectronic power 
IC relay. 

This advanced semiconductor technology has created a 
radically new control device. Designers can now develop swit- 
ching systems to new standards of electrical performance and 
mechanical compactness. 



BOSFET Power IC I 
1010 Operations I 
100/jSec Operating Time I 
0.2 //Volt Thermal Offset I 
5 milliwatts Pick-Up Power I 
1000V ///sec dv/dt I 
Bounce Free I 
TO-116 Pinout I 
-40"C to 85°C I 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Operating 
Voltage 


Off-state 
Resistance 


PVR2300 


0-200V AC/ DC 


10 8 ohms 


PVR3300 


0-300V AC/DC 


PVR3301 


10 1 °ohms 



(BOSFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 



D-41 



BOSFET PVR33 Photovoltaic Relay 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS 

(-40°C <T A < 85°C unless otherwise specified) 


PART NO. 
PVR2300 | PVR3300 | PVR3301 


Units 


Input Characteristics (See Fig. 4) 
Min. Allowable Control Current: 

For 20mA Continuous Load Current. 

For 100mA Continuousl_oad Current. 

For 20mA Continuous Load Current. 


2.0@25°C 
5.0 @ 25° C 
5.0 @ 85°C 


mA (DC) 
mA (DC) 
mA (DC) 


Min. Turn-Off Current 
Min. Turn-Off Voltage 


10 

0.6 


£(A (DC) 
V (DC) 


Control Current Range (Caution: Current limit input LED. See Fig. 6) 


2.0 to 25 


mA (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 


7.0 


V (DC) 


Response Time (See Fig. 7) 

Max. T( 0n ) @ 12 mA Control, 100 mA load, 100 VDC, 25°C, to 90% 
Max. T(off) @ 12 mA Control, 100 mA load, 100 VDC, 25°C, 100% to 10% 


100 
50 


microsec 
microsec 


Output Characteristics 

Operating Voltage Range 


±200 ± 300 


V (peak) 


Max. Load Current 40° C (See Fig. 1 ) 
AC (See Wiring Diagram "A") 
DC (See Wiring Diagram "B") 
DC (See Wiring Diagram "C") 


180 
200 
260 


mA (peak) 
mA (DC) 
mA (DC) 


Max. On-State Resistance 25°C (Pulsed) (See Fig. 2) 
(50 mA load, 8 mA Control) 
AC Connection (See Wiring Diagram "A") 
DC Connection (See Wiring Diagram "B") 
DC Connection (See Wiring Diagram "C") 


24 
12 
6 


Ohms 
Ohms 
Ohms 


Min. Off-State Resistance, 25°C (see Fig. 5) 


10« @ 160VDC 


10 10 
@ 240 VDC 


Ohms 


Max. Thermal Offset Voltage , 5.0 mA Control 


0.2 


/U volts 


Min Off-State dv/dt 


1000 


V/fJS 


Output Capacitance (See Fig. 3) 


12 


pf @ 50 VDC 


General Characteristics 

Dielectric Strength-Input/Output 

Insulation Resistance @ 500 VDC-lnput/Output 


1500 

10 s 


V (RMS) 
Ohms 


Max. Capacitance-Input/Output 


1.0 


pf 


Ambient Temperature Range: Operating 
Ambient Temperature Range: Storage 


-40 to 85 
-40 to 100 


°C 
°C 



Mechanical Specifications 



TO-116 Pinout 



Dimensions in Inches (Millimeters) 




Wiring Diagrams 




A Connection B 'Connection 'C ' Connection 



D-42 



BOSFET PVR33 



PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES 




100 

in 

£ 80 



« 60 




10 20 30 40 50 



V DD .Drain To Drain Voltage 
Figure 3. Typical Output Capacitance 




Turn-On Current CmA) 



Figure 4. Minimum Control Current For Full Turn-On 




Load Volts-DC LED Forward Voltage Drop (Volts DC) 



Figure 5. Off-State Resistance Figure 6. Input Characteristics (Current Controlled) 



D-43 



BOSFET PVR33 PhotoVoltaic Relay performance characteristics curves 




D-44 



Data Sheet No. PD-1.029C 
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



SERIES PVI 

Microelectronic 
Isolator 

5 or 10 Volt 

Photovoltaic Isolator 0utput 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Photovoltaic Isolator (PVI) generates an electrically 
isolated DC voltage upon receipt of a DC input signal. The 
input of the PVI is a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) which is 
optically coupled to, but electrically isolated from, the output. 
A gallium aluminum-arsenide LED is used for high output and 
maximum stability. The infrared emission from the LED 
energizes, by photovoltaic action, a series connection of 
silicon pn junctions. A unique alloyed junction stack which 
is edge illuminated is used to form the output photovoltaic 
generator. This novel International Rectifier structure produces 
extremely high operating efficiency. Units are available with 
a single 5 volt output or dual 5 volt outputs which can be series 
connected to produce 10 volts. 



PVI FEATURES 

A photovoltaic isolator can serve as an isolator, a coupler or 
as an isolated voltage source. As an isolator the PVI can serve 
as the key component in a solid state relay circuit. The PVI 
is ideally suited for driving power MOSFETs or sensitive gate 
SCRs to form solid state relays. 

As a coupler the PVI can sense a low level DC signal and 
transmit a voltage signal to an electrically remote circuit. As 
a voltage source the PVI can function as a "DC transformer' 
by providing an isolated, low current DC source for biasing 
or supplying power to low quiescent current electronic 
devices. 

Conventional photocouplers merely modulate the resistance 
of an output device such as a transistor, diode or resistor. Such 
photocouplers require a separate voltage source to detect the 
presence of an input signal. In contrast, a PVI actually 
transmits (and transforms) energy across the isolation barrier 
and directly generates an output voltage. This DC voltage, 
available at a 2500 VAC isolation level, gives circuit designers 
a new and uniquely useful electronic component. 



Isolated Voltage Source 
MOSFET Driver 
Up to 50 ,«A Output 
Fast Response 
GaAIAs LED 
2500V (RMS) Isolation I 
8-Pin DIP Package I 
Single or Dual Output I 



INPUT 




Part Identification 



Part No. 


Number of 
Outputs 


Output 
Voltage 


Output 
Current 


PVI5050 


1 


5.0V 


5 yA 


PVI5100 


1 


5.0V 


10 »A 


PVI1050 


2 


5.0/10V 


10/5 fiA 



E-1 



Photovoltaic Isolator PVI5100, PVI5050 and PVI1050 



ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (-40-C « T A - 100°C unless otherwise specified) 



INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 

(LhU tmitter) 




PART NUMBER 


UNITS 


PVI5050 


PVI5100 


PVI1050 


Input Current Range (See Fig. 5) 




2.0 to 50 


mA (DC) 


Max. Forward Voltage Drop @ 10mA, 25°C (See Fig. 6) 




1.4 


V (DC) 


Max. Reverse Voltage 




7.0 


V (DC) 


Max. Reverse current @ -7.0V (DC), 25°C 




100 


MA (DC) 


Max. Pulsed Input Current @ 25°C (See Fig. 7) 




1.0 


A (Peak) 




OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 

(Photovoltaic Generator Detector) 








Max. Forward Voltage @ 10mA 




8.0 Per Channel 


V (DC) 


Max. Reverse Current <§> -10V (DC) 




10 


MA (DC) 




COUPLED CHARACTERISTICS 








Min. Open Circuit Voltage @ 10mA, 25°C 
(See Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4) 




5.0V 


5.0V Per 
Channel 
10V Series 
Connection 


V (DC) 


Min. Short Circuit Current @ 10mA, 25°C 
(See Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4) 




5^A 


10 M A 


5.0 iiA Per 
Channel 
10 wA Parallel 
Connection 


MA (DC) 


Max. Capacitance — Input/Output 




1.0 


2.0 


PF 


Max. Turn-on Time @ 20mA Input, 25°C, to 90% 
(See Fig. 8 and 9) 


R L = 5.0 MS2 


30 


10 


30 


MS 


R L = 1.0 MQ 


40 


12 


40 


MS 


Max. Turn-off Time @20mA, 25°C 100% to 10% 
(See Fig. 8 and 9) 


R L = 5.0 MQ 


400 


300 


400 


MS 


R L = 1.0 MO 


100 


80 


100 


MS 


Insulation Resistance @ 90VDC — Input/Output 




10 12 


« 


— Input/Output 
Dielectric Strength — ^ — 




2500 


V (RMS) 


— Between Outputs 




HI A 1200 


V (DC) 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 








Ambient Temperature Range 


Operating 


-40 to 100 


°C 


Storage 


-40 to 100 


°C 


Lead Temperature (1.6 mm below seating plane) 
for 10 sec. 




260 


°C 



Mechanical Specifications 

420110661 Max. 

I— 060 (1 52) Max 

□ □_ 



8 5 

PVI5100 
PVI5050 

O 



420(10.66) Max - 
- 060 (1.52) Max 

n n n n 




Wiring Diagram/Schematic 



Anode 



PVI510(P 
(PVI5050) 



DC 



Anode 
Cathode 



2 






± 


+ 


+ 










+ 


3 


* 


PVI1050 





E-2 



PERFORMANCE 
CHARACTERISTICS 

Photovoltaic Isolator PVI5100, PVI5050 and PVI1050 curves 




Figure 1. PVI5100 Typical Output Characteristics Figure 2. FVI5050 Typical Output Characteristics 




Input Current — Milliamperes 
Figure 3. PVI1050 Typical Output Characteristics Figure 4. Typical Variation of Output 




Figure 5. Input Current Derating Figure 6. Input Characteristics 

E-3 



Photovoltaic Isolator PVI5100, PVI5050 and PVI1050 




10,000 
5000 

I 2000 

a 

3 1000 

5 500 

l 200 
o 

5 100 

8 50 

20 
10 

























Input C 

(Serie 


urrent = 
s Conne 


20 mA 
ction) 














a 


Time 
















(100% to 10% 
I 















f 


















— r 
























R L = 


1 to 10 M 


I 












(( 


3n Tir 
lo 9C 


<M>) 

























1.0 2.0 5.0 



10 20 50 100 200 
Load Capacitance (pF) 



500 1000 



Figure 9. PVI1050 (PVI5050) Typical Response Time 



FOR COMPLETE APPLICATION INFORMATION ON THE PVI SERIES CONSULT "THE PVI - A VERSATILE NEW 
CIRCUIT ELEMENT," PAGE F-31 OF THIS DESIGNER'S MANUAL. 



Application Note: 

The outputs of the PVI1050 (pins 5-6 and 7-8) may be placed in series connection to produce a 10 volt output with a 
5 microampere minimum short circuit current. Alternatively, the two outputs of the PVI1050 may be parallel connected 
to produce a 5.0 volt output with a 10 microampere minimum short circuit current. 

The two outputs of the PVI1050 may be applied separately with a maximum 1200 VDC between the outputs. Input to 
output isolation to either output is 2500 volts (RMS). 



E-4 



Microelectronic Relay 
Designer's Manual 



Index to Application Notes 

Number Description Page 

AN-100: AC Load Switching With ChipSwitch Microelectronic Relays F-3 

AN-101: Choosing An Input Resistor for a Microelectronic Relay F-7 

AN-102: Inductive Load Switching Characteristics of the ChipSwitch F-9 

AN-103: Thermal Evaluation of the ChipSwitch in Programmable Controllers F-11 

AN-104: The Photovoltaic Relay: A New Solid State Control Device F-13 

AN-105: Advantages of Photovoltaic Relays in Multiplexers F-19 

AN-106: The Switching Life of BOSFET Photovoltaic Relays F-23 

AN-107: Short Circuit Withstand Capability of the Photovoltaic Relay F-25 

GBAN-PVM: The PVI — A Versatile New Circuit Element F-31 



F-1 



Microelectronic Relay 

Designer's Manual 





International 
[^r] Rectifier 



AC Load Switching With ChipSwitch anioo 
Microelectronic Relays 

(ChipSwitch is a trademark of International Rectifier) 
by Stan Schneider 



SOLENOID VALVES 



Introduction 

Electromechanical relays (EMRs) us- 
ed for switching AC lines have limited 
useful lives due to mechanical wear out 
and contact sticking and erosion. These 
problems are accentuated under induc- 
tive loads or the surge conditions ex- 
perienced when driving incandescent 
lamps. Under these conditions relay life 
varies from 10 4 to 10 6 operations. 

The ChipSwitch Relay 

The ChipSwitch microelectronic 
relay developed by International Rec- 
tifier is a solid state device specifically 
designed to overcome EMR problems 
through the use of electronic power 
switching. Mechanical fatigue and con- 
tact arcing problems under inductive 
loads, for example, are totally non- 
existent. Because of this superior per- 
formance, ChipSwitch relays offer 
designers a far better solution where 
reliability of operation and the high cost 
of service are important factors. 

Power IC Approach 

The use of an integrated circuit ap- 
proach to zero-crossing, photosensing 
and power switching combined with the 
use of the highly advantageous dual 
SCR output, produces a microelectronic 
relay with a very long switching life. 
In order to determine the switching life 
of the ChipSwitch SSR a number of 
characteristic loads were selected. 
These included contactor coils, solenoid 
valves and incandescent lamps. These 
loads presented a wide variety of severe 
operating conditions. The test data in 
this application note indicates a 
minimum life of 10 7 operations with 
no upper limit yet established — 
demonstrating that the ChipSwitch 
relay's switching life exceeds that 
which can be achieved by EMR 
devices. The lack of any deterioration 
in the ChipSwitch test samples further 
indicates that actual life is much greater. 



Scope: To determine the feasibility 
of employing the CS60O5 and CS6010 
ChipSwitch relays to switch solenoid 
operated gasoline valves. 

Life Test Description: Two typical 
dual flow rate valves were selected and 
set up to be switched by ChipSwitch 



solid-state relays. Each of the valves 
selected used two ChipSwitch devices 
to operate at the two flow rates 
required. 

For each valve two tests were run: 
one full-off to full-on; and the second 
full-off to full-on to half-on (low flow 
rate). 



TEST I 



Valve: Skinner XLG2R470C 

Relays: Two ChipSwitch CS6010 

(CS6005 is identical except for turn-on current). 



Test A: Both coils on and off simultaneously (Full-on, Full-off). 

Input Current (each ChipSwitch): 10 mA DC 

Cycle Length: 1 Sec. 

Duty Cycle: 50% 

Steady State Operating Current 

ChipSwitch 1: 180 mA AC Peak 

ChipSwitch 2: 180 mA AC Peak 

Test Duration: 2,074,000 Cycles 



Test B: Both coils on simultaneously, low flow rate coil on only, off 

Input Current (each ChipSwitch) 10 mA DC 

Cycle Length: 3 Sec. 

Duty Cycle: 1 Sec. Full on 

1 Sec. Low Flow Rate 
1 Sec. Off 

Steady State Operating Current 
Full On 

ChipSwitch 1: 180 mA AC Peak 

ChipSwitch 2: 180 mA AC Peak 

Low Flow Rate 

ChipSwitch 1: 180 mA AC Peak 

ChipSwitch 2: 

Test Duration: 864,000 Cycles 

Total Test Duration: 2,938,000 Cycles 

F-3 



TEST n 

Valve: ASCO 8292 

Relays: Two ChipSwitch CS6010 

Test A: Both coil and diode circuit on and off simultaneously (Full on, 
Full off) 

Input Current: 
Cycle Length: 
Duty Cycle: 

Steady State Operating Current 
ChipSwitch 3: 
ChipSwitch 4: 

Test Duration: 



10 mA DC 
1 Sec. 
50% 

270 mA 
150 mA 

3,197,000 Cycles 



Test B: Both coil and diode circuit on simultaneously, coil on only, off. Life Test Results 



Input Current: 
Cycle Length: 
Duty Cycle: 



Steady State Operating Current 
Full on 
ChipSwitch 3: 
ChipSwitch 4: 

Low Flow Rate: 
ChipSwitch 3: 
ChipSwitch 4: 

Test Duration: 

Total Test Duration: 



10 mA DC 

3 Sec 

1 Sec! Full On 

1 Sec. Low Flow Rate 

1 Sec. Off 



270 mA AC Peak 
150 mA AC Peak 

170 mA AC Peak 


864,000 Cycles 
4,061,000 Cycles 



The ChipSwitch relays were remov- 
ed from the circuit after each test and 
completely checked for any detrimen- 
tal effects to the operating character- 
istics. Each SSR was found to be in 
perfect operating condition and no 
degradation in any specification was 
detected. 

Conclusion 

The tests performed show that the 
ChipSwitch CS6005 and CS6010 
microelectronic power IC relays can 
successfully and reliably operate 
solenoid controlled valves. □ 



CONTACTORS AND INCANDESCENT LAMPS 



Scope: To determine the feasibility 
of employing the ChipSwitch CS6005 
and CS6010 microelectronic relays to 
switch size 1 and size 2 contactors and 
incandescent lamps. 

Life Test Description: Both size 1 and 
size 2 contactor and a 25 watt incandes- 
cent lamp were selected and set up to 
be operated by ChipSwitch relays. The 
size 1 contactor, the size 2 contactor, 
and the incandescent lamp were each 
driven by a single ChipSwitch. The test 
in all cases consisted of a simple on/off 
1 operation. 



TEST I 

Contactor: Telemecanique (Gould) Size 1 Contactor 
Catalog #A203C, 

120 VAC Coil (38 Ohm Dc Resistance) 

Relay: ChipSwitch CS6010 (CS6005 is identical except for turn- 

on current). 

Control Input: 10 sec, 10 mA pulse, 20 sec. period 
Test Data 

Open Sealed 

Line Voltage: 120 VAC 120 VAC 

Current: 1.65A RMS 0.20A RMS 

Phase Shift: 56 Deg. 73 Deg. 

Power Factor: 0.56 0.29 

Contactor closes within 1 cycle 

Test Duration: 1,132,000 Cycles 





























ollac 




































J 
























) 


















t 












































1 I 



Time. 2 milfisec/Div 

Figure 1. Open Condition 



















V 




/ 




























\ 










/ 








j 






























/ 






































J. 
























Time, 2 millisec/Div. 

Figure 2. Sealed Condition 
F-4 



Time, 10 mlllisec/Div 



Figure 3. Switched Coil Current 



Contactor: 
Relay: 

Control Input: 
Test Data 



TEST II 

Westinghouse size 2 Contactor 

Catalog #A201K2CA 

120 VAC coil (41 ohm DC resistance) 

ChipSwitch CS6010 

10 sec, 10 mA pulse, 20 sec. period 




Time. 2 rr 

Figure 4. Open Condition 



Line Voltage: 
Current: 
Phase Shift: 
Power Factor: 



Open 

120 VAC 
1.34A RMS 
56 Deg. 
0.56 



Contactor closes in 1 cycle 
Test Duration: 1,132,000 Cycles 























r 




\ 




lurre 


nl 








, 


















f 




















































\ 


















□nag 






i 



























Time. 2 millisec/Div. 

5. Sealed Condition 



Sealed 

120 VAC 
0.20 A RMS 
73 Deg. 
0.29 




Time, 10 it 

Figure 6. Switched Coil Current 



Lamp: 
Relay: 

Control Input: 



TEST in 

25 Watt Incandescent Lamp 
120 VAC filament 

ChipSwitch CS6010 

10 sec, 10 mA pulse, 20 sec. 



Test Data 



period 



Line Voltage: 120 VAC 

Peak Current: 1.6A 1st Vi cycle 

Steady State: 0.25A RMS 

1st V4 Cycle: 0.70A RMS 

1st Full Cycle: 0.39A RMS 

Lamp Current stabilizes rapidly in first cycle. 

Test Duration: 1,132,000 Cycles 




Time. 10 mimsec/Div. 



Figure 7. Lamp Current 



Lamp load rating is determined by the steady state current 
of the lamp independent of the flashing rate. 



Life Test Results 

The ChipSwitch devices were remov- 
ed from the circuit after each test and 
completely checked for any detrimen- 
tal effects to the operating 
characteristics. Each SSR was found to 
be in perfect operating condition and no 
degradation in any specification was 
detected. 

Conclusion 

The test performed shows that the 
ChipSwitch CS6005 and CS6010 
microelectronic power IC relays can 
successfully and reliably operate the 
size 1 and size 2 contactors and in- 
candescent lamps. □ 



F-5 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



International 
S Rectifier 



F-6 



AN-101 



Choosing An Input Resistor 
for a Microelectronic Relay 

by Bill Collins 



Introduction 

The International Rectifier Chip- 
Switch and Photovoltaic Relay (PVR) 
devices are current-controlled 
microelectronic relays with a specified 
current which must be supplied for turn- 
on. Therefore, a current limit resistor 
is necessary when operating from a 
voltage source. This application note 
gives the procedure for determining the 
proper resistor to program the 
microelectronic relays to operate from 
any control voltage. 

Procedure 

The selected resistor must be of suf- 
ficiently low value that the specified 
turn-on current flows at the minimum 
signal voltage and lowest operating 
temperature. Note that the input circuit 
shown in Figure 1 consists of the inter- 
nal Light Emitting Diode (LED) plus 
the external resistor which is being 
selected. 

To determine the maximum allow- 
able value of Rc, the maximum LED 
forward voltage drop at the coldest 
operating temperature should be deter- 
mined from the input characteristics 
curve found in each respective technical 
data sheet. An example is shown here 
as Figure 2. 

The value normally used for -40°C 
operation is 1.6 VDC. The following 
equation expresses the maximum allow- 
able value for Rc. 



Rc § 



Ic (turn-on current) 

Example: E in (Min.) = 4.5 VDC; 
I c = 5 mA; T A a -40°C 

R c < 4.5V-1.6V < 580 Ohms 
.005A _ 



Ein 
O— 



te- 



E LED 



Output 



Voltage 
Source 



Figure 1. Input Circuit 



20 



16 



< 
E 

T= 12 



CAUTION: provide current 
limiting so that 25mA max 
steady-state control current 
rating is not exceeded. 










ml 




I J 






of 




o 






to \ 
col 




o 
y 






+ 1 




■o 






TJI 

c 1 
m 1 




c 
03 1 

<D U 






<B I 
O I 


>• 1 


~ 1 

0) 1 






3 I 

<D 1 




X} I 






TJ 1 










c I 




2 J 











0.5 1.0 1.5 

LED Forward Voltage Drop (Volts DC) 

Figure 2. Input Characteristics (Current Controlled) 



2.0 



F-7 



A minimum allowable value of Re is 
set by the necessity of not allowing the 
input current to exceed 25milliamperes 
at the highest signal voltage and max- 
imum operating temperature. A high 
temperature LED drop of 0.9 volts is 
most commonly used. 



Kc — 

I c (Max. Allowable Current) 

Example: E ta = 6.0V Max; I c 
Max. = 25 mA, T A £ 85 °C. 



6.0V - 0.9V 
Rc § k 204 Ohms 

.025A 



In the above examples a resistor in the 
calculated range and near the maximum 
allowable value would be selected, for 
example 500 Ohms. 

Figure 3 is a plot of the above equa- 
tions for two commonly used input cur- 
rents: specifically, 6 mA and 12 mA. 
The minimum allowable value of Rc 
corresponding to 25 mA maximum in- 
put current also is plotted. These steps 
should be followed to determine an ap- 
propriate input resistor. 



1. Determine the minimum available 
input voltage and read the maximum 
allowable Rc from the plot cor- 
responding to the selected signal 
current (in this case, 6 mA or 12 
mA). 

2 . Read the maximum allowable input 
voltage for the selected resistor 
value by checking the bottom 
"minimum allowable Rc"plot. The 
allowable input signal voltage range 



has now been determined. Note that 
by reading horizontally across a 
given input resistor value from the 
"Signal Plot" to the "Minimum 
Allowable Rc" plot the allowable 
input voltage range can be directly 
observed. □ 




4.0 6.0 8.0 10 

Input Signal (Volts DC) 

Figure 3. Input Resistor For Two Typical Input Currents 



12 



F-8 



Inductive Load Switching 
Characteristics of the ChipSwitch 

(ChipSwitch is a trademark of International Rectifier) 
by Stan Schneider 



Introduction 

Due to their unique switching 
characteristics, solid state relays (SSRs) 
have firmly established themselves as 
electronic switches in the world of in- 
dustrial controls. Many of the loads en- 
countered in this world are inductive, 
from moderately inductive motors and 
transformers to extremely inductive 
solenoids and contactors. When swit- 
ching such loads, the AC current lags 
the AC voltage, thus creating a phase 
angle difference commonly specified as 
power factor. Power factor is defined 
as R/Z or the cosine of the phase angle 
difference between voltage and current 
and decreases with increasingly induc- 
tive loads. 

This phase difference has in the past 
caused switching problems for SSRs, 
especially those designed to switch at 
the advantageous zero voltage crossing 
point of the line, as in the case of Inter- 
national Rectifier's ChipSwitch 
microelectronic relay. For these reasons 
most SSRs are rated at a minimum 
power factor of 0.5, while the 
ChipSwitch solid state device is rated 
at a greatly improved minimum of 0.2. 
Further, the 0.5 power factor rating has 
been achieved with the use of internal 
snubbers which, while improving in- 
ductive load capability, increase off- 
state leakage and reduce reliability. The 
ChipSwitch meets its 0.2 minimum 
power factor without the use of snub- 
bers. It is the purpose of this applica- 
tion note to indicate the wide safety 
margin in the unsnubbered 0.2 power 
factor specification of the ChipSwitch 
relay and to establish that the perfor- 
mance is maintained over life. 



Possible SSR Switching 
Problems 

The inductive effects that could limit 



performance are those that occur dur- 
ing or following current transitions such 
as partial turn-on (half-waving) and 
failure to turn-off (lock-on). In the case 
of half- waving, the reapplied voltage 
traverses the zero switching window too 
fast to trigger the thyristor due to cur- 
rent phase shift in each previous half cy- 
cle (Figure 1 — Condition A). Lock- 
on is where retriggering occurs every 
half cycle (with no input signal) due to 
the rapidly rising reapplied voltage 
(dv/dt), a totally different phenomenon, 
but also a result of the current phase 
shift (Figure 1 — Condition B). Increas- 
ed junction temperature tends to in- 
crease the relay's susceptibility to this 
phenomenon. 




Figure 1. Waveforms Illustrating Half- 
Wave and Lock-On Phenomena 



Power Factor Testing 

The initial testing was performed with 
a load bank of passive inductors 
(chokes) and resistors that were ad- 
justed to provide the appropriate load 
and power factor for each test condi- 
tion. A series of tests were then made 
on a number of ChipSwitch relays us- 
ing the test set-up of Figure 2. In order 
to detect a malfunction, the samples 
were examined at both turn-on and turn- 
off, as well as for symmetry of 
waveform at each test point. 

The test samples were selected ran- 
domly from past and present production 
lots and were put through the normal 
final test procedure. 

Samples were tested over a power 
factor range from 0.5 to 0.1 as 
measured on an oscilloscope (Figure 3) 
under the following conditions: 

Ambient 

Temperature: Room (25 °C) 
Input Current: 5 mA DC 

Output 5V, 140V, 280V 

Voltage: (RMS) 

Load Current: 5 mA,20 mA,300 
mA, 650 mA, 1A 
(RMS) (But not 
greater than the rated 
current for each 
model). 

Test Results 

All samples operated correctly over 
the entire range of power factor. 

Over Temperature Testing 

In order to force a failed condition or 
a malfunction, five ChipSwitch relays 
were deliberately heated beyond the 
maximum specified full load 40°C 



F-9 



ambient and the power factor of the load 
was varied over the same range as in 
the previous test. In the range of 40 to 
50°C above specification and at full 
rated current, parts began to lock-on, 
but would recover when cooled. With 
resistive loads even higher temperatures 
were attained without lock-on. From 
this it is clear that, the dv/dt of the reap- 
plied voltage, as is the normal case, is 
the cause of lock-on. It is also clear that 
a very large safety margin has been 
built into the ChipSwitch design. 

Life Cycle Testing 

While the previous tests confirm per- 
formance with passive inductive loads 
of varying power factors, it was felt that 
a practical test with a highly inductive, 
high inrush load would be in order. A 
NEMA No. 2 motor starter was chosen 
with the following coil characteristics: 



VA Watts 
Inrush 360 — 
Sealed 41 10 



Power 
Factor 



0.24 



Amps 
3.3 
0.37 



With 5 mA of control current five 
ChipSwitch microelectronic relays were 
operated 100,000 times with a 50% 
duty cycle and a 10 second period. 

Test Results 

No malfunction occurred during the 
entire test duration and the ChipSwitch 
relays when retested showed no 
deterioration in specification. These 
results have been re-con firmed by ad- 
ditional testing as reported in Applica- 
tion Note AN-100. 



Analysis of ChipSwitch 
Performance 

The problems that might have af- 
flicted conventional SSRs when sub- 
jected to the same series of tests were 
described in earlier paragraphs. Some 
of the reasons why the ChipSwitch was 
successful in these cases, even without 
a snubber, are as follows: 

The two independently fired photo 
coupled switches, IC, and IC 2 shown 
in Figure 4, do not have the recovery 
time problems that might occur with a 
single SCR in a full-wave bridge circuit 
or with a triac which is used in many 
discrete SSRs. With the input energiz- 
ed the very fast turn-on properties of 
these SCRs allow the device to have 
sufficient time to turn-on when sub- 
jected to the step function reapplied line 
voltage at zero current. This insures that 
half-waving cannot occur. 

The novel zero voltage detection and 
clamping circuit formed by CI, 
distributed gate capacitor C2, and FET 
Ql effectively protects the SCR from 
turning on under the conditions of high 
reapplied dv/dt occurring when the 
ChipSwitch relay is turned off. 
Therefore, lock-on cannot occur under 
specified conditions. 

Conclusions 

In this application note we have 
shown the excellent inductive load swit- 
ching capabilities of the ChipSwitch 
solid state relay and its inherent im- 
munity to the ill effects of phase shift 
that so often plague more conventional 
SSRs. 



Although no lower limit for power 
factor was found, the ChipSwitch can 
clearly operate loads with power factor 
magnitudes down to 0. 1 , thus assuring 
its successful use in what must be its 
greatest area of application. For exam- 
ple, the majority of motor starters and 
contactors have power factors between 
0.15 and 0.4. 

The unwillingness of the ChipSwitch 
microelectronic relay to half-wave, 
even well beyond its specification is 
tremendously important with inductive 
loads such as transformers that are 
prone to saturation. The DC component 
produced by a half-waving SSR can 
bring about saturating currents that 
result in its own destruction. The 
ChipSwitch will not self destruct in this 
manner and will provide dependable 
performance in an area that has long 
been questionable for SSRs. 

Finally, the absence of a snubber and 
the ChipSwitch relay's inherently low 
leakage permit the switching of small, 
highly inductive loads at low voltage 
(e.g., 5 mA at 20 VAC and 0.1 pF). 
These characteristics together with a 
small zero switching window make In- 
ternational Rectifier's ChipSwitch 
microelectronic relay unique among AC 
SSRs.D 



References 

1. International Rectifier Application 
Note AN-100. "The Switching Life 
of ChipSwitch Microelectronic 
Relays." 



Regulated 
DC 
Supply 



(Voliage Waveform)- 



L J 



r 



Figure 2. Test Set-Up 



Figure 4. ChipSwitch Equivalent Circuit 




» Phase Angle (9) at 60 Hz 



16.67 

Cos 6 = Power Factor 



Figure 3. Power Factor Measurements 



F-10 



Thermal Evaluation of the ChipSwitch 
in Programmable Controllers 

by Stan Schneider 



AN-103 



Introduction 

International Rectifier single in-line 
package (SIP) microelectronic power 
IC relays are commonly applied as AC 
output interface units in programmable 
controller output assemblies. The most 
typical mechanical configuration con- 
sists of eight or more SIP relays attach- 
ed to a common heatsink. This heatsink 
is usually part of or thermally tied to 
the case of the AC output module. The 
current handling capability of such an 
output assembly must be determined 
under various combinations of load cur- 
rent occurring in the individual chan- 
nels. Obviously, the effective current 
rating of a given output channel is 
greatest when only that channel is 
turned on and only its power dissipa- 



tion is contributing to the temperature 
rise of the large heatsink. Several chan- 
nels turned on simultaneously result in 
more heating and a reduction of the 
allowable current rating of the in- 
dividual channels. 

The SIP ChipSwitch 

This application note presents the test 
technique for determining the allowable 
current ratings for a bank of ChipSwitch 
SIP solid state relays attached to a com- 
mon heatsink. Actual current ratings 
under various conditions of loading are 
given for a typical output structure. 

Specification Limitations 

A maximum assembly dissipation of 
15 watts into a 60 °C ambient was 



selected as a representative operating 
limit. Various combinations were run 
to determine the relay limitations under 
these conditions. Two cases were then 
run to determine the safety margins in 
rating the assembly at 15 watts at 60°. 
A limit of 120° C was placed on max- 
imum junction temperature, allowing a 
large safe temperature margin for pro- 
per junction operation. 

Test Set-Up 

Sixteen SP6210 ChipSwitch SIP 
relays were mounted in a typical in- 
dustry AC output module. The structure 
of this module can be seen in Figure 1 
and 2. Thermocouples were placed in 
key locations throughout the system as 
can be seen in Figure 3. 




INTERNAL 

/"HEATSINK 
CHIPSWITCH 
SP6210 
(16 PL| 




INTERNAL 
S HEATSINK 
CHIPSWITCH 
,SP6210 
(16 PL) 











r 





Figure 1 . Typical AC output module 



Figure 2. Heatsink configuration 



TC2 

(ATTACHED TO THE 
TC5 OUTSIDE OF THE 
/ C OVER) 



mm™ mwm 



TC3 TCI 



Figure 3. Location of thermocouples 



F-11 



n n 




2.8 
24 
— 2 

!• 

Q 

&■ 1.2 
08 
0.4 







































































































0.4 0.8 1 2 1.6 2.0 2.4 
IRMS (AMPERES) 

Figure 4. Power Dissipation SP6210 



Test Conditions and 
Parameters Employed 

Ambient _ 
Temperature = 60 °C _J (still air) 

All readings were taken after thermal 
stability was achieved. For the calcula- 
tions in the report, the following values 
were employed: 

- Bj-HTSK = io°c/w 

— Ptj — See Figure 4 
All loads resistive. 

Tests 

Case 1: 1 ChipSwitch relay at 2.0 
amperes 

TCI = 69.0°C 

TC2 = 63.2°C 

TC3 = 64.0°C 

TC4 = 61.9°C 

TC5 = 61.7-C 

PD Total = 2.56W 

Tj = 10 x 2.56 + 69 = 94.6°C 

The single relay operated within 
specification at this current rating. 

Case 2: 12 ChipSwitch relays at 1.0 
ampere each 

TCI = 76.9°C 
TC2 = 72.9°C 
TC3 = 77.0°C 
TC4 = 67.2°C 
TC5 = 66.8°C 

PD Total = 12 X 1.05 = 12.6W 
Tj(l) = 10 x 1.05 + 76.9 = 87.4°C 
Tj (2) = 10 x 1.05 + 77.0 = 87.5°C 

All ChipSwitch relays operated within 
specification at this current rating. 

Case 3: 8 ChipSwitch relays at 1.5 
amperes each 

TCI = 80.5°C 
TC2 = 71.6°C 
TC3 = 80.3°C 
TC4 = 66.3°C 
TC5 = 65.0°C 

PD Total = 8 x 1.7 = 13.6W 
Tj (1) = 10 x 1.7 + 80.5 = 97.5°C 
Tj (2) = 10 x 1.7 + 80.3 = 97.3°C 



All ChipSwitch relays operated within 
specification at this current rating. 

Case 4: 6 ChipSwitch relays at 2.0 
amperes each 

TCI = 89.6°C 
TC2 = 80.8°C 
TC3 = 88.8°C 
TC4 = 69.4°C 
TC5 = 68.2°C 

PD Total = 6 x 2.56 = 15.36W 
Tj (1) = 10 x 2.56 + 89.6 = 1 15.2°C 
Tj (2) = 10 x 2.56 + 88.8 = 1 14.4°C 

All ChipSwitch relays operated within 
specification at this current rating. 

Case 5 and 6 were run in an attempt to 
determine the safety margin inherent in 
the assembly. Therefore, the power 
dissipation was increased beyond the 
target 15W maximum. 

Case 5: 16 ChipSwitch relays at 1.0 
ampere each 

TCI = 87°C 
TC2 = 81.5°C 
TC3 = 86.9°C 
TC4 = 76.3°C 
TC5 = 77.3°C 

PD Total = 16 x 1.05 =16.8W 



Tj(l) = 10 x 1.56 + 87.0 = 102.6°C 
Tj(2) = 10 x 1.56 + 86.9 = 102.5°C 

All ChipSwitch relays operated within 
specification at this current rating. 

Case 6: 16 ChipSwitch relays at 1.5 
amperes each 

TCI = 103. 8°C 

TC2 = 94.5°C 

TC3 = 103.7°C 

TC4 = 85.5°C 

TC5 = 87.2°C 

P D Total = 16 x 1.7 = 27.2W 

Tj (1) = 10 x 1.7 + 103.8 = 120.8°C 

Tj(2) = 10 x 1.7 + 103.7 = 120.7°C 

All ChipSwitch relays operated within 
specification at this current rating. 

Conclusions 

International Rectifier ChipSwitch" 
SP6210 solid state power IC relays meet 
the current handling requirements of a 
typical programmable logic controller. 
Current ratings of 2.0 amperes per 
channel at 60° ambient are possible 
under lightly loaded conditions. Under 
the worst case condition of all channels 
on simultaneously, a 1.5 ampere rating 
per channel can still be achieved. □ 



F-12 



AN-104 



The Photovoltaic Relay: 

A New Solid State Control Device 



by Bill Collins 



Summary 

Recent developments in semiconduc- 
tor technology have led to the design of 
a new type of solid state relay which 
combines photovoltaic isolation with 
MOSFET power integrated circuit 
techniques. The International Rectifier 
Photovoltaic Relay brings solid state 
advantages to applications which 
previously could be served only by 
signal level electromechanical relays. 

Introduction 

Historically the relay is the earliest 
applied electrical device, preceding in 
relay telegraph usage the electrical 
motor and the incandescent lamp. The 
relay function of switching a load cir- 
cuit with a low power, electrically 
isolated control circuit has been im- 
plemented by several basic design ap- 
proaches. Figure 1 illustrates the relay 
topologies in both mechanical and solid 
state form which probably have been of 
greatest commercial significance. 

The Photovoltaic Relay 

A new topology, termed the Photo- 
Voltaic Relay (PVR), has recently 
evolved and is illustrated in Figure 2. 
The PVR topology achieves electro- 
optical isolation by means of a light 
emitting diode (LED) energizing a 
photovoltaic generator (PVG) con- 
sisting of a series connection of silicon 
PN junctions. The signal from the 
photovoltaic generator in turn activates 
a bidirectional MOSFET configuration. 

The PVR circuit configuration 
achieves a unique combination of 
operating advantages not present in any 
of the topologies of Figure 1 . The PVR 



77ifs application note is a reprint of a paper 
presented by H. William Collins at the National 
Association of Rela\ Manufacturers (NARM), 
April 24, 1985. 



Contacts ^^EF 

Armature ' n v~ 
■= — 1 1 > \i 

'd 



Moving Spring 
Coil 



OQQOOOOO Q W 

Core / 
o op o o o o o 1 J 




Capsule 



A. STANDARD EMR 
Topology = Coil + Core + Armature 
+ Spring + Contacts 



B. REED RELAY 



Topology = Coil + Reeds + Contacts 
+ Capsule 




C. TRANSFORMER COUPLED SSR 
Topology = Osc. + XFMR + Thynstor 
or Transistor 



D. PHOTO-COUPLED SSR 
Topology = LED + Photo-Conductor 
+ Thyristor 



Figure 1. Common Relay Topologies 




Bidirectional I (~} 
MOSFET 



BOut 



Output 

O 



Topology = LED + PVG + Bidirectional MOSFET 



Figure 2. Photovoltaic Relay 



F-13 



has the solid state advantages of long 
switching life, high operating speed, 
low pick-up power, bounce-free opera- 
tion, non-inductive input, insensitivity 
to position and magnetic fields, extreme 
shock and vibration resistance, and 
miniaturization. In addition, modern 
MOSFET technology provides a much 
better analog of an ideal electro- 
mechanical switch than does thyristor 
or bipolar transistor technology used 
dominantly as the output contacts in 
previous solid state relays (SSRs). 
Relative to thyristors, the MOSFET 
displays a linear on-resistnace rather 
than an 0.6 volt threshold in forward 
conduction, as shown in Figure 3. An 
inverse series connection of two 
MOSFETs can switch DC or AC at fre- 
quencies well into the RF range. Static 
and commutating dv/dt effects are not 
inherent and turn off can be instan- 
taneous. Relative to bipolar transistors, 
MOSFETs display lower on-state off- 
set voltages, much lower off-state 
leakages, and, most importantly, have 
essentially infinite static forward cur- 
rent gain (i.e.. MOSFETs are voltage 
controlled). 

However, MOSFET technology in- 
herently requires a larger area of silicon 
for a given volt-ampere power capabili- 
ty than does thyristor technology. 
Therefore, there is a severe economic 
limitation in using MOSFET devices in 
high power AC control applications 
where operational characteristics of 
thyristors are adequate. As such, PVRs 
supplement thyristor output SSRs in ap- 
plications requiring fast switching of 
signals from microvolts to several hun- 
dred volts of either DC polarity or AC 
through the radio frequency range. 
These applications have commonly 
been served by reed capsule relays. In- 
ternational Rectifier's PVR now pro- 
vides a functional equivalent of the reed 
relay and the advantages of solid state 
implementation. 

Photovoltaic Isolation 

Photo-isolated thyristor and bipolar 
transistor type SSRs use photo- 
conductive type isolators as shown in 
Figure 4A. These photo-isolators (also 
termed photo-couplers) receive optical 
radiation from a dielectncally isolated 
LED. This radiation modulates the con- 
ductivity of the photo receptor which 
can be a resistor (cadmium sulphide 
cell), a diode, transistor, Darlington 
transistor, or thyristor. The increased 
conductivity allows a current to flow 
from a separate voltage source thereby 
producing an output signal in a load 
such as Rt • In a 4-terminal SSR the 
supply voltage can be taken from the 
output terminals with the advantage of 
eliminating a separate power source. 
This simplfication has the disadvantages 
of requiring a finite voltage drop across 



the terminals before turn on, increas- 
ing the off-state leakage, and providing 
a possible path for load transients to 
feed through to the sensitive input of the 
SSR circuitry and cause malfunction. 

The isolator technique shown in 
Figure 4B uses a series connection of 
photo diodes as a photo-receptor to 
form an isolated photovoltaic generator. 
This type of isolator actually transforms 
energy across the isolation barrier and 
creates an isolated voltage source. As 
such, a separate power source is not re- 
quired to achieve an output signal or the 
attendant problems of deriving the tum- 
on signal from the SSR load terminals 
are eliminated. 

Although a photovoltaic isolation 
technique may seem like an ideal cir- 
cuit solution, until recently there have 
been severe practical problems in using 



a photovoltaic isolator. An economical- 
ly affordable and sufficiently compact 
photovoltaic generator produces only a 
weak output. A practical photovoltaic 
generator can generate several volts into 
an open circuit load, but only 
microamperes of output current. 

However, the output of such a 
photovoltaic generator is an ideal match 
to the drive characteristics of a 
MOSFET. A modern power MOSFET 
requires several volts of signal for full 
conduction, but requries essentially 
zero steady state current. Only transient 
energy to charge the gate capacitance 
is required to turn on and then hold the 
MOSFET in conduction. A charging 
current of only a few microamperes can 
turn on a typical MOSFET in a small 
fraction of a millisecond — a fast 
response relative to electromechanical 
switching times. 




Figure 3. Solid State Output Characteristics 




A. Alternative Receptors for Photoconductive Isolators 




B. Photovoltaic Isolator 



Figure 4. Types of Photo-Isolators 



F-14 



The PVR topology has become practical 
because of the perfection in the last five 
years of power MOSFET technology . 
It seems impractical to use a 
photovoltaic generator other than in 
conjunction with a MOFET gate. 
Thyristors and bipolar transistors both 
require too much drive current. Hence, 
the term Photo Voltaic Relay describes 
not only the isolation technique but also 
strongly implies a circuit topology with 
a MOSFET output. 

MOSFET Output 

Figure 2 shows a bidirectional 
MOSFET output that can be formed by 
use of two N-channel MOSFETs in in- 
verse series, common source connec- 
tion. The common source connection 
allows control by a single photovoltaic 
generator. For reliable and fast tum-off 
to occur, this configuraiton must pro- 
vide a discharge path for the gate-to- 
source capacitance such as provided by 
resistor R,. Discharge will not occur 
effectively back through the 
photovoltaic generator because of the 
approximately 0.6 volt threshold con- 
duction level per junction in the series 
connection of typically 10 to 20 diodes. 
A discharge resistor value in the 1 to 
10 megohm range is desirable to pre- 
vent significant loading on the 
photovoltaic generator. The gate 
capacitance values of MOSFETs ap- 
propriate for a PVR can be in the 100 
to 1000 picoFarad range, thereby pro- 
ducing discharge time constants in the 
millisecond range. 

The release time of a PVR can be 
greatly decreased by the use of addi- 
tional, active circuit elements. Circuitry 
using a depletion mode MOSFET nor- 
mally shorted across the output 
MOSFET gate and turned off by a se- 
cond photovoltaic generator has been 
previously described. An alternative 
method of fast gate discharge is shown 
in Figure 5. 

Whenever the gate voltage of Q, is 
significantly more positive than the 
photovoltaic generator voltage, signify- 
ing that output transistor Q, should be 
turning off, enhancement mode P- 
channel transistor Q 2 (or a PNP 
bipolar) shorts the charge on the Q, 
gate to the source and accomplishes fast 
turn off. This circuit configuration has 
the advantage that only a single 
photovoltaic generator is required. 

Using dynamic gate turn-off techni- 
ques, drop-out release times in the 10 
to 50 microsecond range are easily 
achievable. MOSFETs switch in a 
bounce-free manner thereby minimiz- 
ing circuit noise and eliminating sett- 
ling times which can increase total swit- 
ching times. 



The extreme switching life possible 
with a MOSFET output arises because 
a transistor, operated at moderate 
temperature, does not experience any 
deterioration mechanism as a result of 
the switching action of its "contact" 
structure. The most common failure 
mechanism of power semiconductors 
results from self-heating temperature 
excursions from the on-off action which 
can cause mechanical failure of die 
bonds and wire bonds. Therefore, in 
PVR applications where on-off thermal 
stresses are slight, claims of near in- 
finite switching life are justifiable. 

The major weaknesses of a MOSFET 
output relative to metallic contacts are 
the closed circuit on-resistance and the 
open circuit capacitance. Compared to 
typically a closed resistance of 100 
milliohms for signal level metallic con- 
tacts, a MOSFET on-resistnace can be 
typically several ohms. Compared to an 
open circuit capacitance of typically one 
picoFarad, a MOSFET open circuit 
capacitance can be typically tens of 
picoFarads. 

Both of these parameters are under 
the control of the semiconductor 
designer within the ultimate limits of the 
physics of the device structure. On- 
resistance can be decreased by increas- 
ing silicon chip area within economic 
limits. The on-resistance of a MOSFET 
varies typically at a rate greater than the 
square of the design blocking voltage. 
Therefore, on-resistance is greatly 
reduced by designing the chip structure 
for the minimum required blocking 
voltage. The modern power MOSFET 
has resulted because of great design ad- 
vances made in reducing the on- 
resistance for a given blocking voltage 
while utilizing a given silicon area. Pro- 
gress in this developmental area is 
continuing. 



Design factors which tend to decrease 
on-resistance (such as increased area) 
also tend to increase off-state 
capacitance. At a given blocking 
voltage a figure of merit corresponding 
the multiple of R D(on) times C, off . SIate) 
results. The ingenuity of the chip 
designer can minimize this number 
within limits, but often at the sacrifice 
of some other parameter such as 
transconductance. It follows that a full 
range of PVR designs will have 
MOSFET outputs of different blocking 
voltages and different chip areas 
thereby optimizing the interrelated on- 
resistance and off-state capacitance for 
a specific application. 

Methods of PVR Implementation 

The design challenge in making a 
practical PVR has been to implement 
the previously discussed concepts in a 
high performance, yet compact and 
economical manner. A discrete compo- 
nent approach cannot achieve either the 
miniaturization or cost which would 
allow the PVR to be directly com- 
petitive with alternative elec- 
tromechanical relays. Hybrid circuit 
techniques, which place MOSFET and 
other chips on a ceramic substrate, 
move toward this ultimate goal. 
However, realization of truly com- 
petitive PVR has required innovative 
semiconductor processing, packaging, 
and advanced power integrated circuit 
techniques. 

Both the photovoltaic generator and 
the bidirectional MOSFET output can 
be implemented by the integrated cir- 
cuit technique of dielectric isolation. 
Dielectric isolation consists of etching 
grooves into a wafer of single crystal 
silicon, forming an insulating silicon 
dioxide layer over the etched wafer, and 
then epitaxially growing a thick layer 
of polysilicon to serve as the ultimate 




Figure 5. Gate Discharge Circuit 



F-15 



physical substrate. The wafer is then in- 
verted and the original single crystal 
substrate ground away until oxide in- 
sulated "tubs" are exposed. Conven- 
tional diffusion techniques can then pro- 
ceed to form semiconductor com- 
ponents. Although dielectric isolation 
requries relatively little semiconductor 
component design innovation, it is a 
complex and costly wafer manufactur- 
ing process. It also places some perfor- 
mance limitation such as lower current 
conversion efficiency of the 
photovoltaic generator, blocking 
voltage problems arising from surface 
metallic interconnects overlaying the 
blocking junctions, and optically induc- 
ed offset voltages in a totally monolithic 
chip. 

Photovoltaic Generator 

A high performance, compact and 
economical series connection of photo 
diodes forming a photovoltaic generator 
is illustrated in Figure 6. 




Figure 6. Edge Illuminated Photovoltaic 
Generator 

This device is adapted from a stan- 
dard manufacturing process for high 
voltage diode cartridges. PN junctions 
are diffused into individual silicon 
wafers. The wafers are then stacked and 
alloyed together. The wafer stack is 
then cut by a deep cut dicing saw into 
individual generators of the desired 
size. The wafer diffusion, of course, is 
designed for optimum photovoltaic 
generation rather than the requirements 
of a high voltage blocking diode. 

This manufacturing process has great 
flexibility in varying both the number 
of diodes and the cross-sectional 
geometry. High conversion efficiency 
also results. The output signal is taken 
axially. This edge illuminated con- 
figuration does not require surface in- 
terconnect metallization which can 
block incident radiation. Also, all of the 
silicon is active in receiving radiation 
because there is no "dead" 
polycrystalline silicon area nor silicon 
dioxide required to isolate the individual 
PN junctions as with dielectric 
isolation. 

Figure 7 shows the output 
characteristics of an edge illuminated 
photovoltaic isolator. This isolator 



utilizes a gallium aluminum arsenide 
LED in a reflective cavity filled with 
a solid dielectric and achieves over 
4000 volts RMS isolation. 

Power IC MOSFET Output 

Development has recently been com- 
pleted on a novel power integrated cir- 
cuit for a PVR termed a BOSFET' 
(Bidirectional Output Switch Field Ef- 
fect Transistor). This monolithic chip 
contains a bidirectional MOSFET struc- 
ture, fast turn-off circuitry and sup- 
plementary gate protection. The power 
IC techniques of the BOSFET make a 
compact and economical PVR a com- 
mercial reality. Figure 8 is a 
photograph of the BOSFET chip. 

The BOSFET uses a unique high 
voltage process similar to N- well 
CMOS. This process integrates high 
voltage lateral DMOS transistors with 
a variety of low voltage control com- 
ponents. The BOSFET contains n- 
channel and p-channel MOS transistors, 
high gain NPN transistors, blocking 
diodes, zener diodes, high valued 
resistors, and capacitors. 



The output transistors of the BOSFET 
use a self-aligned polysilicon gate 
technique to achieve the benefits of a 
short channel, a well controlled 
threshold, and a highly reliable gate- 
oxide interface. The process enables a 
single polysilicon layer to perform 
multiple functions. In addtion to con- 
trolling the output devices, this selec- 
tively doped polysilicon layer is used 
for low resistance interconnects, high 
value isolated resistors, voltage in- 
dependent high value capacitors, and P- 
channel and N-channel gates. The 
BOSFET is derived from modern 
power MOSFET technology and is an 
excellent example of a monolithic 
power IC formed by conventional IC 
manufacturing processes. 

The BOSFET chip of Figure 8 blocks 
±300 volts peak and has 24 ohms max- 
imum on-resistance at 25°C. Other 
voltage and on-resistance ratings can be 
designed by properly adapting the basic 
BOSFET structure. A BOSFET op- 
timized for a PVR should combine high 
transconductance, low threshold 
voltage, low junction capacitances, and 




F-16 



high off-state resistance. Figure 9 
shows a BOSFET transfer curve. 

The variation of off-state resistance 
with applied voltage and temperature of 
a typical BOSFET is shown in Figure 
10. 

Operational Characteristics of a 
PVR 

Figures 1 1 and 12 show a commer- 
cial PVR which is formed using a 
BOSFET chip and an edge illuminated 
photovoltaic isolator. 

The PVR is a normally open, single 
pole configuration rated at 150 
milliamperes continuous current and 
300 volts peak blocking. The 



mechanical structure is highly adaptable 
to high volume semiconductor assembly 
processes, using transfer molding to 
form both the inner reflective cavity and 
the outer housing. Figure 13 sum- 
marizes the performance characteristics 
of this PVR. 

The clean switching characteristics 
and response times of the complete 
PVR are shown in Figures 14 and 15. 

current for turn-on, even faster actua- 
tion can be achieved by applying an in- 
itial pulse which is then reduced to a 
much lower quiescent holding current. 
Figure 16 shows an input speed-up cir- 
cuit which applies a 90 milliampere 
overdrive pulse with approximately a 
40 microsecond decay time constant, 



thereby achieving a 25 microsecond ac- 
tuation tie. The quiescent current of 5 
milliamperes which is maintained 
would result in a 150 microsecond ac- 
tuation time without the speed-up 
circuit. 

Release time is determined by circuit 
element values within the BOSFET and 
is largely independent of the input drive 
conditions. 

The PVR inherently generates very 
low thermal voltages. This advantage 
arises because of the simplicity and ease 
of symmetry of the output structure. 
Even more important is the low control 
power generated in the package. A PVR 
requires only 3 milliwatts dissipation in 
the LED in a thermocouple switching 




1012 

I 

| ion 

Sf io 1 o 

* irj9 
w 

5 108 



I 

T = 25°C 








T - 


55°C 





























100 150 
Output Voltage 



Figure 9. BOSFET Transfer Characteristics Output with 
1 Volt, 2 Volt, and 3 Volt Gate Steps 



Figure 10. Typical BOSFET Off-State Resistance 





Figure 11. Photograph of Single Pole PVR 



Cavity 

Figure 12. PVR Internal View 



F-17 



Typical PVR Operating 


Characteristics 


Blocking Voltage: 


±300V 


Current Rating: 


130 mA @ 40°C 


On Resistance: 


20 ohms @ 25°C 


Off Rocictanpo 1 


IU Ulllllb {QJ tlZJ >*j 


Output Capacitance: 


12 pf @ 50 VDC 


Pick-up Current: 


2 mA Light Load 




10 mA Full Load 


Response Time: 


100 uSec @ 8 mA Drive 


Thermal Offset: 


200 nanovolts 


Pick-up Power: 


2 to 20 milliwatts 


Switching Operations: 


10'° @ 20 mA 


Isolation: 


2500 V(RMS) 


Size: 


0.5 in. x 0.3 in. x 0.2 in. 




Figure 13. Operating Characteristics 



8 mA Step 



Figure 14. PVR Switching Action 
Sweep = 50 us/Div. 
Signal = 8 m* Step 
Upper Trace = Output Closure 




Control Current - Miiiiamps DC Figure 16. Fast Turn-On Circuit 



Figure 15. PVR Response Time 



application versus 50 milliwatts 
minimum coil power for an elec- 
tromechanical relay. As a result, a PVR 
can readily be produced to a 200 
nanovolt maximum ihermal offset 
specification. 

The output switching life of a PVR 
is easily demonstrated. A test was 
recently completed where a group of 10 
PVRs were operated for 10 1 ' 1 switching 
cycles without failure or significant 
deterioration of the BOSFET outputs. 



The test was conducted by switching 20 
milliamperes from a 50 volt DC source 
with 507c duly cycle at a I kHz rate. 
The 10"' switching operations life 
point is reached in about 1 16 days. 

Conclusion 

The International Rectifier 
PhotoVoltaic Relay can achieve 
previously unattainable switching life, 
operating speed, control power sen- 
sitivity, low thermal voltage generation, 
and miniaturization. These characteris- 



tics are increasingly needed by 
designers for process control, data ac- 
quisition, multiplexing, automatic test 
equipment, and telecommunications 
equipment. The new PVR topology will 
allow the venerable relay function to 
meet these ongoing challenges. □ 



F-18 



Advantages of Photovoltaic Relays 
in Multiplexers 

By Allen Garfein 



Introduction 

While modern instrumentation 
system designs are almost entirely solid- 
state, an exception to this dominance 
has been the electro-mechanical relay 
(EMR) used in analog multiplexer in- 
puts. Until recently, the critical perfor- 
mance characteristics of these switches 
could be met only by traditional electro- 
mechanical relays. There was no choice 
in turn to accepting the performance 
limitations of these EMRs. 

All Solid State Multiplexers 

The use of International Rectifier 
microelectronic power IC Photovoltaic 
Relays (PVRs) in multiplexers can 
greatly increase life and reliability, 
allow systems to operate at higher scan- 
ning rates, eliminate measurement er- 
rors from thermally generated offset 
voltages, reduce operating power, pro- 
vide greater mechanical ruggedness, 
and decrease instrument board sizes. 
PVR devices can be widely applied in 
multiplexing designs as replacements 
for reed relays, stepper switches, 
crossbar switches and monolithic 
CMOS integrated circuits. A typical 
multiplexer schematic is shown in 
Figure 1. 

Figure 2 is a pair of photographs 
showing a recently redesigned MUX 
card using International Rectifier PVRs 
in comparison with an older design us- 
ing EMRs. 

In addition to the obvious space savings. 
International Rectifier's PVR offers 
numerous electrical performance ad- 
vantages. These advantages of the solid 
state PVR are now possible because of 
recent advances in MOSFET 
technology which allow the nearly ideal 
open/closed contacts of electro- 



mechanical switches to be essentially 
duplicated by semiconductor structures. 

A Better MUX Switch: PVR 

The numerous solid state advantages 
of the PVR relative to the traditional 
EMR allow the instrumentation 



designer to design more reliable equip- 
ment. In addition, by capitalizing on the 
unique PVR features, the innovative 
designer can create higher performance 
systems of smaller size. The major PVR 
advantages to MUX designers include 
the following: 




Figure 1. Typical Multiplexer System 




MULTIPLEXER CARD WITH EMRs MULTIPLEXER CARD WITH PHOIOVOLTAIC 

Figure 2. Comparison of Electromechanical 
and Photovoltaic MUX Board 



F-19 



1. Life — PVR devices have a 
demonstrated switching life of 10'° 
operations (see application note 
AN-106) when switching signals as 
high as 50 volts at 20 milliamperes 
(1 watt). The best reed relay EMRs 
achieve life of only 10' operations 
at much lower power switching 
levels and after burn-in screening 

2 . Low-Thermal — PVRs easily 
achieve thermal offset voltages 
below 0.2 microvolts. This low 
spurious signal level is possible 
because the simple output structure 
produces minimal thermal junctions. 
Furthermore, the actuation power 
which is as low as 3 milliwatts, ver- 
sus typically 50 milliwatts for a reed 
relay, produces negligible heating. 

3 . Speed — Full on-off settling times 
without any noise inducing bounce 
can be less than 50 microseconds, 
approximately 20 times faster than 
EMRs. This speed, plus the extend- 
ed life, makes much higher scann- 
ing rates practical. "Break" before 
"make" performance is provided by 
a fast turn-off circuit integrated in- 
to the power output stage. 

4. Input Drive — Control can be 
achieved with as low as 3 milliwatts 
and the non-inductive input does not 
require a coil suppression diode. 

5. lnsensitivity — Neither orientation, 
as with mercury wetted contacts, nor 
external magnetic fields affect the 
operation of PVRs. What's more, 
PVRs do not generate magnetic 
fields. Therefore, lack of magnetic 
"crosstalk" allows maximum pack- 
ing density. Of course, PVR 
microelectronic power IC relays 
feature the very high shock and 
vibration resistance characteristic of 
solid state devices. 

6 . Size — At under 0.002 in.' per 
pole, International Rectifier PVRs 
are considerably more compact than 
low thermal EMRs of equivalent 
performance. This allows great 
economy in board mounting area. 

7 . Analog Switch Comparison — 
Relative to solid state analog swit- 
ches, PVRs have complete input 
isolation (up to 4000 VAC), high 
blocking voltage capability, much 
lower on-state resistance and are 
free of latch-up. Switches remain 
open when logic power is turned off. 



Signal sources remain separated 
without the precaution of disconnec- 
ting inputs or supplying short circuit 
protection. 

Multiplexing Applications 

Analog multiplexing requires an ar- 
ray of swtiches operating individually 
or in groups to connect each of several 
signal sources to a common amplifier 
or measurement system. If channels are 
selected in sequential order this device 
is sometimes referred to as a "scan- 
ner. ' ' A system capable of selection in 
random order is usually called a 
multiplexer. Figure 1 is an illlustration 
of a low level differentia] multiplexer 
using 3 switch poles per channel to con- 
nect the signal and shield or guard to 
the measurement system; a high gain 
amplifier, sample/hold and A/D 
converter. 



Many important performance 
characteristics can easily be 
demonstrated with a simple configura- 
tion shown in Figure 3a, an 8-channel 
single ended multiplexer using the 
PVA3354 as the switching element. 

DC leakage through individual swit- 
ches can be observed by turning off the 
logic drive power and connecting a 
200V supply to the MUX common. A 
voltmeter with 10 meg input impedance 
connected between an input and analog 
ground will show the leakage current as 
the voltage drop across the 10 megohm 
input impedance. Inversely, connecting 
all inputs to a 200 volt signal and 
measuring the output on the MUX com- 
mon yields the leakage through all eight 
switches. Typical measurement with 
this method shows about 2 nA or an 
average off resistance of 10" Ohms 
per channel. 






Figure 3b. Test Circuit Switching Characteristics. Test conditions use 
PVA3354 devices, approx. 1000 channels/sec, LEO drive 5 mA, scope trig- 
gered on leading and trailing edge of drive pulse 



F-20 



With logic power applied, a binary 
counter and decoder sequentially scans 
all eight channels. Note that no delay 
is needed between successive addresses 
because of the "Break" before "make" 
operation of the PVA. The channel 
under test is connected to a IK Ohm 
zero volt source. The seven remaining 
inputs are tied to the output of a 30 Vp-p 
square wave generator to demonstrate 
the effects of crosstalk and settling after 
extreme preconditions on the prior 
channel. By adjustment of the control 
current limiting resistor, the effect of 
varying control current on switching 
speed is apparent. The use of a square 
wave will also show the effects of 
crosstalk as a disturbance of the settled 
voltage signal. Superimposed 
oscilloscope photos of the turn-on and 
turn-off of the channel under test are 
shown in Figure 3b. The pair of "A" 



traces display settling of the channel 
under test to volts. The "B" traces 
show the turn-off with the selection of 
the next channel. On turn-on, a short 
delay occurs before the prior channel 
is disconnected from the MUX com- 
mon. The MUX slowly drifts toward 
until the channel under test begins to 
turn on and rapid settling occurs. On 
turn off, the short delay is experienced 
but the MUX common does not appear 
to move until the next channel begins 
to turn on. Note that full transition oc- 
curs in less than 50 microseconds. The 
traces of 3b are taken with the diode 
clamp circuit connected to prevent 
overloading the oscilloscope input. 

The dependence of switching speed 
on control current is shown in Fig. 4. 
Switching speed of an order of 
magnitude faster than a high quality 





































































































































































































































































































iff 
















"dly 





















































20 50 100 200 50C 

Delay Time (microseconds) 

Figure 4a. Typical Delay Times 



3 -i 



Figure 4b. Delay Time Definitions 



5 

i 

E 20 



V DD , DRAIN TO DRAIN VOLTAGE 

Figure 4c. Typical Output Capacitance 



reed switch is readily obtained with a 
series 74LS driver. The turn-off delay 
remains nearly constant until the drive 
pulse width is too narrow to allow com- 
plete charging of the fast turn-off cir- 
cuit, extending the delay before turn- 
off occurs. Charging may be made 
faster with greater control current or us- 
ing an RC circuit to speed charging 
while limiting the steady state current 
to a nominal value. 

The closed circuit resistance of a 
PVA series device is greater than that 
of a metallic contact. A bidirectional 
300 volt relay, e.g., the PVA3354, has 
a typical on-resistance of 20 Ohms. A 
100 volt PVA 1354 offers a 5 Ohm 
resistance. Comparable unidirectional 
300 and 100 volt blocking relays, such 
as the PVD3354 and PVD1354 devices, 
reduce on-resistance by a factor of 4: 1 
or 5 and 1 Ohm respectively. While the 
resistance is significant it is stable and 
does not degrade with switching, allow- 
ing for compensation in the design or 
calibration of the system. 

Multi-Level Multiplexing 

The maximum voltage occurring 
across an open switch must be limited 
to less than the maximum blocking 
voltage or avalanche can occur. For ex- 
ample, if it is necessary to monitor 
signals on separate phases of the 120V 
AC line, a multi-level multiplexing 
scheme as shown in Figure 1 can be 
used to double the number of open 
switches between phases. This increases 
the maximum blocking voltage between 
groups to 600V. 

To achieve a low on-resistance, a 
solid state switch requires a large area 
chip resulting in greater capacitance 
than a metallic contact and this must be 
considered in evaluating crosstalk for 
high frequency signals. Nonlinear open 
circuit capacitance of a PVA, shown in 
Figure 4c, varies from 50 to 10 pF with 
voltage. Larger signals or signals with 
DC bias reduce capacitance and result 
in less crosstalk. 

Cascading through 2 switching levels 
also reduces crosstalk. For example, the 
worst case capacitive coupling for a 64 
channel MUX is reduced by a ratio of 
14/63 or -13 db over a single level 
multiplexer. 

The "T" Switch 

Certain applications may benefit from 
improved crosstalk rejection provided 
by the "T" switch illustrated in Figure 
5a. By attenuating the capacitively 



F-21 



coupled noise signal through shorting 
switch, S3, a much smaller error signal 
can pass through to the MUX output. 
The "T" switch should be considered 
where pulse or high frequencies are to 
be multiplexed. The equivalent circuit 
shown in Figure 5b may be used to 
calculate the worst case cross talk for 
the PVA3354 device. 



Flying Capacitor Multiplexer 

A flying capacitor multiplexer, 
shown in Figure 6, utilizes two pairs of 
switches per channel to isolate both 
signal and return from the measurement 
system. This type of MUX is usually 
applied to low level, low frequency in- 
puts, e.g., therocouples with accompa- 
nying high common mode voltages. 
This technique offers excellent common 
mode rejection and isolation of the com- 
mon mode source from the measure- 
ment system. A low pass filter, Rl, R2, 
CI, is often used on the input. The fly- 
ing capacitor, C2, is initially charged 



to the signal voltage through SI and S2. 
Using metallic contacts, rapid charge 
transfer between capacitors results in 
contact pitting as the switches make in- 
itial contact. Resistors R3 and R4 are 
Used to limit the peak current to extend 
the life of the contacts. A semiconduc- 
tor switch does not suffer from pitting 
and can easily handle the transient cur- 
rent on switch closure, eliminating the 
need for resistors R3 and R4 and their 
resultant scaling error. The life of the 
PVA relay is therefore extended many 
times over that of a high quality reed 
switch. 

Variations 

Figure 7a illustrates applications of 
a PVA series microelectronic power IC 
relay to an analog integrator. S 1 causes 
a reset by shorting the feedback 
capacitor. S2 and S3 vary the integra- 
tion time constant. 

Figure 7b illustrates an input selec- 
tor which can be used to select or sum 



rv) "~o.se | 



i . 



MUK OUTPUT 



Figure 5a. Simplified Schematic 
of T Switch MUX 




Figure 5b. Equivalent of 
T Switch Circuit 



R1 R3 Si S 
r — OA'W-t \AA' e ■ o 

_L CHANNEL 1 1 „ l c , 




CHANNEL 2 




Figure 6. Flying Capacitor MUX 



inputs to an operational amplifier. 

High voltage signals can be at- 
tenuated in a manner necessary for ac- 
curate selection of multiple inputs as 
shown in Figure 7c. The 300 volt block- 
ing capability of the PVA3354 allows 
a relative high ratio of R, and R,, 
thereby minimizing any loading or in- 
terference effects between channels. 

Solid State Conversion 

International Rectifier's new 
microelectronic power IC relays, com- 
bining MOSFET outputs with 
photovoltaic isolation, are replacing 
electo-mechanical relays in many ad- 
vanced multiplexer and instrument 
related designs. Although there are 
some limitations, such as open circuit 
capacitance and closed circuit 
resistance, the knowledgeable designer 
can overcome these difficulties and reap 
a large net benefit from the many in- 
herent advantages of solid state 
performance. □ 




Figure 7a. Integrator Time Constant 
and Reset Selector 




Figure 7b. Input Selector 



Figure 7c. High Voltage Selector 



The Switching Life of 
BOSFET Photovoltaic Relays 

(BOSFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 
by Bill Collins 



AN-106 



Introduction 

All electromechanical relays have a 
finite switching life resulting from 
mechanical fatigue and contact 
deterioration. In contrast there is no in- 
herent deterioration mechanism in a 
solid state switching device resulting 
from the change of state from blocking 
to conducting or vice versa. 

The best electromechanical relays can 
achieve an effective life of 10 7 to 10 9 
switching operations, depending on 
relay type and load conditions. The 
longest life of 10 9 switching operations 
is usually achieved by reed capsule 
relays, but only at light, non-inductive 
loads and after a burn-in screen. Ap- 
plications such as Automatic Test 
Equipment and Scanning Multiplexing 
systems which require very long swit- 
ching life can be best served by the in- 
herent lack of a wear-out mechanism of 
solid state devices. 



The BOSFET Power IC 

International Rectifier PhotoVoltaic 
Relay (PVR) devices use a proprietary 
power integrated circuit, termed a 
BOSFET, to overcome many limita- 
tions of electromechanical relays. A 
primary advantage of the PVR is the use 



of the BOSFET as a solid state switch 
to avoid the wear-out mechanism of 
metallic contacts. The data reported in 
this application note demonstrate a 
minimum of 10 billion (10 10 ) switching 
operations with no degradation of the 
PVR microelectronic devices under 
test. 

Test Technique 

Relay Part No.: PVR3301 
Sample Size: n=5 relays, 

10 poles 
Switching Rate: 1 kHz 
Duty Cycle: 50% 
Ambient Temp: 25 °C 
Input Current: I LED = 5 mA 
Output Load: 20 mA, 500 VDC 

(1 watt resistive) 
Failure Criteria: All parameters to 

remain within 

published 

specifications 

The life test setup has five two-pole 
International Rectifier PVR3301 
Photovoltaic Relays per fixture and 
through a timing circuit switches their 
inputs rapidly. The output in turn swit- 
ches <" load current through a resistor 
at the same rate. The test is operated 
continuously. 

The selected one kilohertz rate, with 



a 50% duty cycle was used so that ap- 
proximately 10 8 operations were com- 
pleted each day. Each pole was on for 
500 microseconds and off for 500 
microseconds for one complete period 
of the input timing circuit. Life test data 
was taken as follows: 10 8 , 10 9 and 10 10 
operations (approximately 115 days 
continuous operation). All specified 
parameters were measured at each life 



Test Results 

No PVR microelectronic switching 
device under test exhibited any failures 
or any parameteric drift out of 
tolerance. 

Conclusion 

The test results demonstrate that the 
switching life of International Rec- 
tifier's PVR is in excess of 10'° opera- 
tions. Note the the 1 watt load is con- 
siderably higher than the load normal- 
ly used with comparable tests of reed 
relays. The semiconductor component 
parts of all IR Photo Voltaic Relays are 
identical. These include the Series 
PVR, Series PVA and Series PVD. 
Therefore, the expected life of each of 
these devices will be comparable to that 
of the life of the PVR3301 microelec- 
tronic relay reported in this application 
note. □ 



F-23 



Microelectronic Relay 



Designer's Manual 



International 
S Rectifier 



F-24 



AN-107 



Short Circuit Withstand Capability 
of the Photovoltaic Relay 

(BOSFET is a trademark of International Rectifier) 
by Stan Schneider 



Introduction 

International Rectifier's power IC, 
the Bidirectional Output Switch Field 
Effect Transistor (BOSFET), is designed 
to insure the performance and reliabil- 
ity of IR's photovoltaic relay (PVR) 
line of microelectronic products. This 
monolithic chip features a bidirectional 
MOSFET structure capable, under 
many load conditions, of withstanding 
a direct short of its load. Self-protection 
and resettable fusing are consequences 
of this property of the PVR. The con- 
ditions under which this extremely use- 
ful characteristic can be utilized are the 
subject of this application note. 

The PVR Design 

The photovoltaic relay is constructed 
as shown in Figure 1 . It consists of an 
infrared emitting LED which energizes 
a photovoltaic pile. In turn, this photo- 
voltaic pile generates a voltage of suffi- 
cient magnitude to turn on a pair of 
BOSFET chips to which its output is 
connected. This pair of N-channel 
devices, both of which are on the same 
piece of silicon, may be connected in 
series for an AC/DC switch or in 
parallel for a DC-only switch. The 
patented BOSFET design includes a 
fast turnoff circuit to control its gate. 
This enables the unit to operate with 
turn-off times as low as 15 micro- 
seconds. It also insures break-before- 
make operation. 

Withstand Capability 

The short circuit withstand capabil- 
ity of the PVR arises from the com- 
plementary interaction of all its key 
elements. These include the BOSFET 
itself which provides an initial current 
limit because in the operating region it 
is inherently a constant current device. 
The BOSFET, as a typical MOSFET 



device, also exhibits a positive temper- 
ature coefficient of resistance. Addi- 
tionally, the photovoltaic pile has a 
substantial negative temperature coeffi- 
cient of output voltage. Finally, the 
emissivity of the LED also falls off with 
increased temperature. Therefore, as a 
short circuit of the load is incurred, a 
chain of events occurs in sequence. The 
transconductance limited current in the 
BOSFET holds the initial current max 
imum low enough to avoid damage. 
The over-current through the BOSFET 
raises its temperature and therefore its 
resistance. The increasing temperature 
then causes the photovoltaic pile out- 
put to fall. This fall in output reduces 
the gate voltage of the BOSFET and 
consequently drives its resistance up. 
This effect becomes substantial as the 
gate voltage drops below the BOSFET 
threshold voltage and the device enters 
a region of linear control. Finally, the 
LED emissivity falls causing a reduced 
photon input to the photovoltaic pile 
and a lower voltage output which 
results in a still higher on-state re- 
sistance for the BOSFET. 

All these effects can be seen in a 
typical current curve under short cir- 
cuit conditions. Figure 2 shows the two 
possible situations. In Figure 2A the 
PVR is turned on into a short circuit. 
In Figure 2B the PVR is already on 
and a short circuit occurs. The final 
result is the same in either case. The 
PVR limits the current to approxi- 
mately 20 milliamperes in spite of being 
directly connected across a 60 volt line. 
Initially higher currents appear, as may 
be expected, when the load is shorted 
when the PVR is already on. 

The short circuit properties of Inter- 
national Rectifier photovoltaic relays 
are a function of both the voltage 



applied to the output of the PVR and 
the current applied to the input. Below 
some characteristic voltage for any 
given input current the device is short 
circuit proof with no limiting resistance 
in the circuit other than some minimal 
source resistance. This source resist- 
ance has been reduced to as small a 
value as possible for the experiment. It 
is believed that the effect of source 
resistance on the characteristics deve- 
loped in this application note is 
negligible. 

Figure 3 illustrates the short circuit 
properties of the PVA3354 photo- 
voltaic relay. This curve was generated 
by turning on the PVR into a short cir- 
cuit with limiting resistance as indi- 
cated. The curve shows a typical max- 
imum voltage that can be sustained 
without damage. Figures 4 through 10 
illustrate the short circuit properties of 
other photovoltaic relay models. The 
curves are for typical units at the input 
currents specified. For guaranteed per- 
formance for all units a safety margin 
of 10% should be applied to the vol- 
tage values shown in the curves. 

In many applications, particularly 
where the end user accessible termina- 
tions are standard, or where loads can 
readily short, this property of the BOS- 
FET is of high importance. Chance 
misconnections or load failures will not 
damage the circuit nor will a fuse need 
replacement. Shortly after relieving the 
fault, the circuit will once again func- 
tion properly. 

Programmable Fuse 

As a programmable resettable fuse, 
the photovoltaic relay can readily be 
adjusted to accept an operating voltage 
within its range by varying the input 
current. In Figure 11, it can be seen 



F-25 



that short-circuit protection for Inter- 
national Rectifier's PVA3354 occurs at 
60V no matter what the input current. 
As the input current is reduced, the vol- 
tage to which the PVR is protected 
rises to 300V. Figure 12 gives the com- 
parable curves for another IR device, 
the PVD3354. As an explanation of 
these curves it is clear that a reduction 
in input current will cause a cor- 
responding decline in the output of the 
photovoltaic generator. Figure 14 
shows that the current limit point 
decreases as the BOSFET gate voltage 
declines. Initial current declines accord- 
ingly, allowing higher voltages, since 
the limitation on the short circuit per- 
formance is the maximum energy 
which can be dissipated in the BOS- 
FET. Actual overload current (fusing 
current) allowable before the occur- 
rence of shutdown versus input current 
is shown in Figure 13. There is, of 



course, an input threshold value for the 
device to turn on at all. Above this 
value the allowable peak current 
increases rapidly with input current. 

Thermal Stress 

An inspection of the shorted load 
curves for the PVA3354 (Fig. 2A) 
shows that the peak current attained 
when the device is turned on into a 
load short circuit is approximately 0.9 
amperes. The output curve of the 
device indicates that Rrjs(on) at this 
point has risen to 65 ohms (typical) 
compared to 19 ohms (typical) at 20°C. 
At this point internal dissipation 
reaches 54 watts. The initial current is 
rapidly reduced due to the various ther- 
mal effects previously described, falling 
to 17 mA after 20 seconds. Under these 
conditions power dissipation is only 1 
watt and RDD equals 3500 ohms. This 
compares to 0.35 watts dissipation 



under normal maximum load. Clearly 
the steady-state stress on the BOSFET 
when it is in its fusing mode is relatively 
small. 

Conclusion 

International Rectifier Photovoltaic 
Relays exhibit short circuit self- 
protection over a wide range of perfor- 
mance. In addition, they can be 
programmed to act as an extremely fast 
acting resettable fuse to protect other 
devices. This property makes the PVR 
particularly useful in circuits where 
misadventure or end user misconnec- 
tion can cause load short circuits. 
These certainly include, as a minimum, 
telecom line interfaces and PLC out- 
put modules. In these applications the 
need for replaceable fuses can often be 
eliminated and circuit damage 
prevented. □ 



4000 VAC 

ISOLATION 

BARRIER 




Figure 1. Photovoltaic Relay Construction. 



F-26 



Device Turned On Into a Shorted Load 



Load Shorted With Device Already On 




A. Region in which output current is primarily limited by transconductance. 

B. Region in which BOSFET heating additionally limits output current. 

C. Region in which the Photovoltaic Generator voltage approaches the BOSFET threshold. 

D. Region in which LED emissivity reduction contributes to output current reduction. 



Note: Steady state current reached in 20 seconds. 
Figure 2(a). PVA3354 Figure 2(b). PVA3354 



Typical Series Resistance Required For Short Circuit Protection (Device Turned On Into a Load Short Circuit) 




1 3 10 30 100 300 1000 1 3 10 30 100 300 1000 

APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) 

Note: Any operating point to the left of the control curve is inherently short-circuit proof. 
Figure 3. PVA3354 Figure 4. PVD3354 



F-27 



Typical Series Resistance Required For Short Circuit Protection (Device Turned On Into a Load Short Circuit) 




APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) 

Note: Any operating point to the left of the control curve is inherently short-circuit proof. 
Figure 5. PVA1354 Figure 6. PVD1354 



Typical Series Resistance Required For Short Circuit Protection (Device Turned On Into a Load Short Circuit) 




APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) 

Note: Any operating point to the left of the control curve is inherently short-circuit proof. 
Figure 7. PVA1054 Figure 8. PVD1054 



F-28 



Typical Series Resistance Required For Short Circuit Protection (Device Turned On Into a Load Short Circuit) 




3 10 30 

APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) 




3 10 30 60 100 

APPLIED VOLTAGE (VOLTS DC) 



Note: Any operating point to the left of the control curve is inherently short-circuit proof. 
Figure 9. PVAZ172 Figure 10. PVDZ172 

No Series Resistance Required for Short Circuit Protection (Device Turned On Into a Load Short Circuit) 



!□ 200 

p 



10 

ILED (mA) 



10 

ILED (mA) 



20 



Figure 11. PVA3354 



Figure 12. PVD3354 



F-29 



Load Current Required To 
Initiate Self Turn-Off 



2 5 10 15 

I LED (mA) 





































































































TA 


> 2 


5% - 


































, * 






















—* 


















TA 


= e 


0% - 




■h- 
































* — - 
























t— 














































1 




























+ 



















































Figure 13. PVA3354 



BOSFET Output Characteristics 





























































- 


3V 










-7I 




















' — 










J 


/ 


































, — 




















































5V 






























































































VGS 




, v 


















































































































































VGS 




3V 



































10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 
VDC (VOLTS) 

Figure 14. PVA3354 



F-30 



GBAN-PVI-1 

The PVI — a Versatile New Circuit Element 

D. W. Moore, Technical Manager, International Rectifier Co (GB) Ltd 




The Photovoltaic Isolator (PVI) 
from International Rectifier, is a 
revolutionary component that 
can simplify many existing 
circuits, allow the creation of 
new designs, and achieve 
miniaturisation and cost 
reduction. 

This article will explain the 
internal workings of the device, 
discuss its characteristics 
and give some application 
examples. 

From this starting point the 
circuit designer will soon 
realise the further application 
potential of this new tech- 
nology component and turn 
imaginative designs into 
practical solutions. 

The Function Basics 



DC — probably by a photo coupler! Yet more 
components and complications. 

• a charge pump solution; this would need a switching 
component, diodes and storage capacitors, but the 
produced voltage would not be floating nor would it 
be easily controlled. 

• a battery solution; fine if you need a fixed floating 
voltage for a limited time, but how could it be 
recharged, and how could it be varied? Another 
photo coupler/transformer link is required to control 
the load connected to the battery. 



All of these solutions are considerably more complex 
than using a single PVI device since it provides in one 
package a floating variable and controllable DC source 
with only four connections, all in a volume of 0.25 cubic 
centimetres! 



In the simplest terms, the PVI is an isolated 5V source 
powered by a LED, all in an 8-pin dual-in-line package; of 
course there's more to it than that, but just think for a 
moment how this function could be achieved with 
"traditional" components: 

• an oscillator, transformer, rectifier solution; probably 
6 or 7 components, slow to start up, radiating 
electrical noise and acoustic noise from the 
transformer, output filtering required to remove the 
AC content, maybe 15 or 20 solder joints, etc, 
certainly larger than an 8-pin DIP and also costly to 
assemble. 

• an extra transformer winding solution; it has to be 
built into the transformer from the start reducing the 
winding window for the main power windings, it 
would still need rectifier and smoothing components 
to produce DC; but would the extra winding achieve 
2500V AC isolation and how would you control the 



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INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER I©R 



This new technology device can be considered as a 
building block in any of the following types of applica- 
tions: 

it is a miniature source of 5V, 
it is a floating bias supply, 
it is an optocoupler, 
it is a signal isolator, 
it is a linear current transformer, 
it is a DC to DC transformer, 
it is a Solid State Relay driver, 
it is an I/O interface, 

it is a versatile component that enables a whole new 
approach to circuit designs, allowing previously 
complex circuits to be banished forever. 



3m 

I, 1 1 




I D10 



+ 
-•5 



-•8 



Typical Values for PVI5100 

I, = 20mA l a = l,/1000 

C g = 100pF 



l„ = 20 uA 
r = 30 kQ 
R = 100MS 



C, =■ 1pF at 2500V AC 



Mechanical Specifications 

420(1066) Max ' • 

k — 060 (1 52) Max 




010 
(254) 



Dimensions in inches (Millimeters) 
Jedec M0-001-A 



Fig 1 Dual-in-Lme Package. 
How it Works 

The heart of the PVI is a miniature array of alloyed silicon 
photo cells, 3mm long by less than 0.5mm wide, this is 
positioned about 1mm from a high output stability 
Gallium-Aluminium-Arsenide light-emitting diode and 
moulded within a clear plastic optical cavity to produce 
an efficient transfer of infra-red energy from the LED to 
the photovoltaic pile. This sub-assembly is then further 
plastic moulded to exclude ambient light, the finished 
package is the standard 8-pin dual in-line as shown in 
Fig. 1. Although the photovoltaic cells can generate 
around 5V, they are really quite small and have a limited 
current generating capability. A better understanding of 
the PVI's characteristics is obtained by examining the 
equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2. The input current 11 is 
converted to infra red radiation by the LED L1. This 



Fig. 2. PVI Equivalent Circuit. 

radiation is optically directed to the surface of the photo- 
cells to generate a current Ig which is directly 
proportional to the incident energy. The physical, 
electrical and mechanical arrangements determine the 
current transfer ratio at about 1000:1 (approximately 
linear but does have negative temperature coefficient). 

Unfortunately, in any photocell, the current source is 
shunted by the diode-like forward characteristics of its 
own elements, this is represented by the series string of 
1 diode junctions D1 to D1 in parallel with the current 
source, it is these that limit the maximum output voltage 
to around 6V and also introduce a negative temperature 
coefficient for the output voltage. These diodes have a 
total bulk slope resistance "r", and because of surface 
leakage across the photocell array and diodes as well as 
through the package, there is a parallel resistor "R". The 
coupling capacitance between L1 and the photovoltaic 
array is only 1 pF, and the dielectric can withstand at least 
2500V AC. 

The photocell structure has an inherent self capaci- 
tance, this is represented by Cg and does to some extent 
limit the minimum switching times achievable but as we 




4 80 12 16 

Input Current — Milliamperes 



Fig 3. PVI Output Characteristics. 



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TOR INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



shall see later, quite respectable turn-on and turn-off 
times of the order of 20 micro seconds can be achieved, 
although this does depend on the load resistance and 
capacitance. 

Typical output characteristic are shown in Fig. 3, the 
short circuit current has a temperature coefficient of 
-0.66%/K and the maximum output voltage a -0.35%/K 
temperature coefficient. 

To simplify the application examples, we shall show the 
PVI as just a variable voltage source as in Fig. 4, but 
remember it has a significantly high source impedance 
of about 500K ohm. 

Applications 

As this is a new type of device, there are no established 
or well known "traditional" applications, but once the 
novel features of the PVI are understood, the circuit 
designer will realise the simple solutions that it can offer, 
so to trigger the imagination here is a general discussion 
and some application examples. 




Fig. 4. Simplified PVI. 
General 

The output power of the PVI is about 50 micro watts, so 
the load has to be chosen carefully, but like any other 
building block they can be interconnected to give an 
enhanced signal, for example the nominal 5V can be 
increased to 10, 15, 20, 25, etc, by connecting parts in 
series, and the nominal 10 micro amps output current 
can be increased by parallel connection. 

The output characteristics of the PVI are ideally suited to 
driving the gate of power MOSFETS, indeed it is the 
marriage of these two components which will produce 
the most popular and wide spread range of applications. 

Since the gate of a MOSFET is mainly capacitance, this 
in conjunction with the PVI source impedance will 
determine the achievable switching times, for example 
the popular IRF620 (rated at 200V and 5A) has a gate 
capacitance of 600pF, and a simple calculation shows 
that this will be charged to 5V by 20 micro amps in 
1 50 micro seconds, quite a respectable switch-on time. 
Although this turn-on action is by forcing a current into 
the gate capacitance, there is no such force available for 
the turn-off action and the charge on the gate must be 
allowed to leak away through the gate-source resist- 
ance. In a MOSFET this is extremely high, of the order of 
2000M ohms resulting in turn-off times of several 
seconds, so an external discharge path must be added, 




Fig. 5. Speed-up Circuit. 

a typical value would be 470k ohm to bring the turn-off 
time down to about 500 micro seconds. 

In this type of design the turn-off will always be about 
four times longer than the turn-on time because of the 
"passive" turn-off action. If there is an application where 
on-off times need to be more closely matched a pair of 
PVI devices may be used to provide a push-pull action, 
or the active charge dump circuit of Fig. 5 could be used. 
Normally the diode D is forward biased and the 
P-channel MOSFET is off, but when the PVI voltage 
drops, the diode is reverse biased, the P-channel 
MOSFET conducts and rapidly discharges the gate- 
source capacitance of the main N-channel MOSFET. 
With this circuit, the turn-off times can be considerable 
faster than the turn-on times. 

A Highside Switch 

To efficiently drive a MOSFET in the positive rail of a 
power supply it needs a gate voltage higher than that 
positive rail, the PVI can provide the additional voltage 
and at the same time isolate the control current to allow a 
more versatile signal source, the circuit is shown in Fig. 6. 
The PVI generates a floating voltage which is applied 
between gate and source, the resistor is to speed-up the 
turn-off time. The much lower on resistance of the fully 
enhanced MOSFET considerably reduces the losses. 

The control signal and the load circuit do not need a 
common connection, they can be separated by up to 
2500V AC, making this configuration useable as a 
general purpose DC Solid State Relay. 




Fig. 6. High Side Switch. 



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INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



The AC Switch 

This is a compact, efficient and cost effective solution to 
controlling AC currents from a logic level signal. Fig. 7 
shows the simple arrangement, the on-losses are lower 
than you might expect because the MOSFETS are also 
enhanced in their reverse direction to bypass the 
inherent drain-source diode. The PVI provides 2500V 
AC isolation between the control and AC supplies, the 
load capabilities are determined by the MOSFETS used, 
and the resistor provides a speedy turn-off to reduce 
switching losses. This circuit does not have the niceties 
of zero voltage turn-on and zero current turn-off 
associated with proprietary Solid State Relays, but does 
have the advantage of simplicity and ease to be 
matched to the application requirements. 




Fig. 7. An AC Switch. 



ing the gate and maintains the MOSFET on. To switch 
the device off, either the main drain current can be 
reduced to zero (for about 1 00 micro seconds whilst the 
gate charge is dissipated) or a negative pulse can be 
applied to the gate in the same manner as a Gate-Turn- 
off-Thyristor. 

A Current Direction Detector 

Fig. 9 shows a circuit that can control two separate loads 
depending on the direction of current flow in the path 
being monitored, the operation of the circuit is self 
explanatory but notice that the LED arrangement means 
that the "OR" function is built-in to the design, i.e. only 
one load can be activated at any one time. 



Load 1 



Load 2 




The Low Power Latch 

The sensitive voltage controlled attributes of a MOSFET 
and the characteristics of a PVI can be 
combined to produce a voltage triggered device with tne 
latching characteristics of a thyristors as shown in Fig. 8. 
The trigger source momentarily makes the transistor 
conduct, the resultant current through the LED (50mA 
max) activates the PVI output which takes over supply- 



PVI 




Fig. 8. A Sensitive Latch/GTO. 



Fig. 9. Current Direction Detector. 

A Miniature AC to DC Power Supply 

To float charge small batteries, to power LCD displays 
and smoke detectors, or feed an AC derived signal to a 
microprocessor a very compact isolated 5 or 1 0V DC 
supply can be produced from an AC line. Fig. 10 shows 
the circuit arrangement with the two 5V sources in 
series, but they could also be in parallel to give a higher 



240V 




Fig. 1 0. An AC/DC Power Supply. 

current. Because of the input current-to-output voltage 
characteristic of the PVI, the output has a built-in 
inherent voltage regulation, the output changing by less 
than 10% when the AC supply goes from 240V to 24V. 
this useful feature increases the range of application for 
a single functional building block in I/O systems. 

A Bridge Driver 

A perpetual problem with the bridge circuit used to 
reverse the direction of a DC motor or control an AC 
motor, has been coupling the control signals to the 

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I«R INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER 



sw itching elements connected to the positive supply rail. 
If a combination of N-channel and P-channel MOSFETS 
aio Lised. then signals referenced to the positive and 
negative rails are required, this can deteriorate the noise 
immunity and make start up and signal processing 
difficult By using P-channel MOSFETS the design 
voltages must be kept low as P-channel devices are not 
available over 200V. 

An alternative configuration is to use all N-channel 
i higher voltages available) but this introduces another 
complexity, the gate drive signals are referenced to the 
sources and these follow the output voltage supplied to 
the load, so for a single phase drive, two floating DC 
supplies are needed with isolated signal coupling (photo 
couplers) to the control signals, and the complexities 
start to accumulate. 

International Rectifier manufactures an integrated 
circuit (the IR2110) which goes a long way to solving 
many of these bridge driving problems but still has 
certain limitations, for example it is limited to under 500V 
DC rail application, it needs continual refresh of the high 
side floating supply which it derives from the output 
semi-conductor switches using a bootstrap technique, 
thus is not appropriate for steady state directional 
control of a DC motor. 

The PVI offers a simple solution to low frequency bridge 
driver requirements, it is its own floating bias supply, it is 
isolated to 2500V AC. it can be driven from a single 5V 
supply, etc. The circuit is shown in Fig. 1 1 , the signals for 
each LED can be connected in various configurations to 
suit the control signals available, an even simpler design 
can omit the bottom two PVI devices and the gates 
driven directly from the control signals. To prevent 
simultaneous conduction of the power devices in one 
arm (fire through) it may be necessary to speed up the 
turn-off action of each device by incorporating the circuit 
of Fig. 5 into each of the four PVI's. 




Fig. 1 1 . Bridge Driver Circuit. 

The same general arrangement of PVI-MOSFET can be 
used for 3 phase and 4 phase drives, used typically for 
inverters and stepper motors. 

Conclusion 

The PVI5100 is designed to match the gate characteristics 
of logic level MOSFETs as illustrated in this article. The 
PVI1050 unit is also available (see page E-1) which 
has a dual 5 volt output. These outputs can be series 

F-35 




Fig. 12. What is the Action of this Circuit? 

connected to drive the gates of standard power MOSFE1 
This single 8-pin DIP PVI1050 can also be used with logi 
level MOSFETs in applications requiring dual outputs sucl 
as Figure 11. 

The applications for the PVI are varied yet simple and 
are spread across the whole spectrum of electronic/ 
electrical design as these examples demonstrate, and 
to start you thinking, what is the behaviour of Fig. 1 2? 
Could you use the PVI in an audio amplifierto simplify the 
design? Or could an ultra efficient synchronous rectifier 
circuit be designed using PVI's? 

Further designs and circuits incorporating the new 
technology/new function PVI, are limited only by your 
imagination to achieve innovative, efficient and 
economical solutions to those troublesome circuit 
problems — and we are always interested in feedback 
from our customers, so if you are proud of youi 
application please phone us or write with the details. 



International Rectifier 



...around-the-world manufacturing 
to serve worldwide needs. 




(T) El Segundo, California 

• Power MOSFETs, custom hybrids, rectifiers, 
thyristors, government/military/hi-rel devices, 
microelectronic relays 

© HEXFET America 

Temecula, California 

• Dedicated to power MOSFETs 

(3) Tijuana, Mexico 

• Schottkys, thyristors, high power rectifiers 



(4) Ontario, Canada 

• High voltage columns, open assemblies, heat 
sinks 

© Oxted, England 

• Power MOSFETs, power modules, alloyed 
rectifiers 

Turin, Italy 

• Rectifiers, thyristors, diode bridges, power 
modules 



Printed on Signet recycled offset: 

made from 50% recycled waste paper, including 

10% de-inked, post-consumer waste. 



F-36